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Government of Romania

 

Constitution of Romania

 

1991

 

Title I - General principles

Article 1 - Romanian State

Article 2 - Sovereignty

Article 3 - Territory

Article 4 - Unity of the people and equality among citizens

Article 5 - Citizenship

Article 6 - Right to identity

Article 7 - Romanians living abroad

Article 8 - Pluralism and political parties

Article 9 - Trade unions

Article 10 - International relations

Article 11 - International and national law

Article 12 - National symbols

Article 13 - Official language

Article 14 - The Capital

 

Title II - Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties

Chapter I - General provisions

 

Article 15 - Universality

Article 16 - Equality of rights

Article 17 - Romanian citizens while abroad

Article 18 - Aliens and stateless persons

Article 19 - Extradition and expulsion

Article 20 - International human rights treaties

Article 21 - Free access to justice

 

Chapter II - Fundamental rights and freedoms

 

Article 22 - Right to life, to physical and mental integrity

Article 23 - Personal freedom

Article 24 - Right to defense

Article 25 - Freedom of movement

Article 26 - Personal and family privacy

Article 27 - Inviolability of domicile

Article 28 - Secrecy of correspondence

Article 29 - Freedom of conscience

Article 30 - Freedom of expression

Article 31 - Right to information

Article 32 - Right to education

Article 33 - Right to protection of health

Article 34 - Right to vote

Article 35 - Right to be elected

Article 36 - Freedom of assembly

Article 37 - Right to association

Article 38 - Labor and social protection of labor

Article 39 - Prohibition of forced labor

Article 40 - Right to strike

Article 41 - Protection of private property

Article 42 - Inheritance right

Article 43 - Living standard

Article 44 - Family

Article 45 - Protection of children and the young

Article 46 - Protection of the disabled persons

Article 47 - Right of petition

Article 48 - Right of a person aggrieved by a public authority

Article 49 - Restriction on the exercise of certain rights or freedoms

 

Chapter III - Fundamental duties

Article 50 - Faithfulness towards the country

Article 51 - Observance of Constitution and laws

Article 52 - Defense of the country

Article 53 - Financial contributions

Article 54 - Exercise of rights and freedoms

 

Chapter IV - Advocate of the People

Article 55 - Appointment and role

Article 56 - Exercise of powers

Article 57 - Report before Parliament

 

Title III - Public Authorities

Chapter I - Parliament

Section 1 - Organization and Functioning

Article 58 - Role and structure

Article 59 - Election of the Chambers

Article 60 - Term of office

Article 61 - Organizational structure

Article 62 - Joint sessions

Article 63 - Sessions

Article 64 - Acts of Parliament and legal quorum

Article 65 - Publicity of sessions

 

Section 2 - Status of Deputies and Senators

Article 66 - Representative mandate

Article 67 - Term of Office of Deputies and Senators

Article 68 - Incompatibilities

Article 69 - Parliamentary immunity

Article 70 - Freedom of opinions

Article 71 - Emoluments and other rights

 

Section 3 - Legislation and Procedure

Article 72 - Classes of Laws

Article 73 - Legislative initiative

Article 74 - Passing of bills and resolutions

Article 75 - Sending of bills and legislative proposals from one Chamber to the other

Article 76 - Mediation

Article 77 - Promulgation of laws

Article 78 - Coming into force of laws

Article 79 - Legislative Council

 

Chapter II - The President of Romania

Article 80 - Role of the President

Article 81 - Election of the President

Article 82 - Validation of mandate and oath-taking

Article 83 - Term of office

Article 84 - Incompatibilities and immunities

Article 85 - Appointment of the Government

Article 86 - Consultation with the Government

Article 87 - Participation in meetings of the Government

Article 88 - Messages

Article 89 - Dissolution of Parliament

Article 90 - Referendum

Article 91 - Powers in matters of foreign policy

Article 92 - Powers in matters of defense

Article 93 - Emergency measures

Article 94 - Other powers

Article 95 - Suspension from office

Article 96 - Vacancy of office

Article 97 - Interim of office

Article 98 - Liability of Acting President

Article 99 - Acts of the President

Article 100 - Compensation and other rights

 

Chapter III - The Government

Article 101 - Role and structure

Article 102 - Investiture

Article 103 - Oath of allegiance

Article 104 - Incompatibilities

Article 105 - Termination of Government membership

Article 106 - Prime Minister

Article 107 - Acts of the Government

Article 108 - Responsibility of members of the Government

Article 109 - End of the term of office

 

Chapter IV - Relations between Parliament and the Government

Article 110 - Information to Parliament

Article 111 - Questions and interpellations

Article 112 - Motion of censure

Article 113 - Assumption of responsibility by the Government

Article 114 - Legislative delegation

 

Chapter V - Public Administration

Section 1 - Specialized Central Public Administration

Article 115 - Structure

Article 116 - Establishment

Article 117 - The Armed Forces

Article 118 - Supreme Council of National Defense

 

Section 2 - Local Public Administration

Article 119 - Basic principles

Article 120 - Communal and town authorities

Article 121 - County Council

Article 122 - The Prefect

 

Chapter VI - Judicial Authority

Section 1 - Courts of Law

Article 123 - Administration of justice

Article 124 - Status of Judges

Article 125 - Courts of law

Article 126 - Publicity of debates

Article 127 - Right to have an interpreter

Article 128 - Use of appeal

Article 129 - Police in the Courts

 

Section 2 - The Public Ministry

Article 130 - Role of Public Ministry

Article 131 - Status of Public Prosecutors

 

Section 3 - Superior Council of the Magistracy

Article 132 - Composition

Article 133 - Powers

 

Title IV - Economy and public finance

Article 134 - Economy

Article 135 - Property

Article 136 - Financial system

Article 137 - National Public Budget

Article 138 - Taxes and duties

Article 139 - Court of Audit

 

Title V - Constitutional Court

Article 140 - Structure

Article 141 - Qualifications for appointment

Article 142 - Incompatibilities

Article 143 - Independence and irremovability

Article 144 - Powers

Article 145 - Decisions of the Constitutional Court

 

Title VI - Revision of the Constitution

Article 146 - Initiative of Revision

Article 147 - Procedure of Revision

Article 148 - Limits of Revision

 

Title VII - Final and transitory provisions

Article 149 - Coming into force

Article 150 - Temporal conflict of laws

Article 151 - Current Institutions

Article 152 - Future Institutions

 

 

Title I

General principles

 

Article 1

Romanian State

(1) Romania is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible National State.

(2) The form of government of the Romanian State is a Republic.

(3) Romania is a democratic and social State governed by the rule of law, in which human dignity, the citizens' rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent supreme values and shall be guaranteed.

 

Article 2

Sovereignty

(1) National sovereignty resides with the Romanian people, who shall exercise it through its representative bodies and by referendum.

(2) No group or person may exercise sovereignty in one's own name.

 

Article 3

Territory

(1) The territory of Romania is inalienable.

(2) The frontiers of the Country are sanctioned by an organic law, under observance of the principles and other generally recognized regulations of international law.

(3) The territory is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties. Some towns are declared municipalities, according to the provisions of the law.

(4) No foreign populations may be displaced or colonized in the territory of the Romanian State.

 

Article 4

Unity of the people and equality among citizens

(1) The State foundation is laid on the unity of the Romanian people.

(2) Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens, without any discrimination on account of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political adherence, property or social origin.

 

Article 5

Citizenship

(1) Romanian citizenship can be acquired, retained or lost as provided for by the organic law.

(2) Romanian citizenship cannot be withdrawn if acquired by birth.

 

Article 6

Right to identity

(1) The State recognizes and guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities, to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.

(2) The protecting measures taken by the Romanian State for the preservation, development and expression of identity of the persons belonging to national minorities shall conform to the principles of equality and non-discrimination in relation to the other Romanian citizens.

 

Article 7

Romanians living abroad

The State shall support the strengthening of links with the Romanians living abroad and shall act accordingly for the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity, under observance of the legislation of the State of which they are citizens.

 

Article 8

Pluralism and political parties

(1) Pluralism in the Romanian society is a condition and safeguard of Constitutional democracy.

(2) Political parties may be constituted and pursue their activities in accordance with the law. They contribute to the definition and expression of the political will of the citizens, while observing national sovereignty, territorial integrity, the legal order and the principles of democracy.

 

Article 9

Trade unions

Trade unions may be constituted and pursue their activities in accordance with their own statutes, as provided by law. They contribute to the defense of the rights and promotion of the professional, economic and social interests of the employees.

 

Article 10

International relations

Romania fosters and develops peaceful relations with all the states, and in this context, good neighborly relations, based on the principles and other generally recognized provisions of international law.

 

Article 11

International and national law

(1) The Romanian State pledges to fulfill as such and in good faith its obligations as deriving from the treaties it is a party to.

(2) Treaties ratified by Parliament, according to the law, are part of national law.

 

Article 12

National symbols

(1) The flag of Romania is tricolor; the colors are arranged vertically in the following order from the flag-pole: blue, yellow and red.

(2) The National Day of Romania is the 1-st of December.

(3) The national anthem of Romania is "Awake, Romanians'.

(4) The country's coat-of-arms and the seal shall be established by organic laws.

 

Article 13

Official language

In Romania, the official language is Romanian.

 

Article 14

The Capital

The Capital of Romania is the Municipality of Bucuresti.

 

 

Title II

Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties

 

Chapter I

General provisions

 

Article 15

Universality

(1) All citizens enjoy the rights and freedoms granted to them by the Constitution and other laws, and have the duties laid down thereby.

(2) The law acts only for the future, with the exception of the more favorable penal law.

 

Article 16

Equality of rights

(1) Citizens are equal before the law and public authorities, without any privilege or discrimination.

(2) No one is above the law.

(3) Access to a public office or dignity, civil or military, is granted to persons whose citizenship is only and exclusively Romanian, and whose domicile is in Romania.

 

Article 17

Romanian citizens while abroad

Romanian citizens while abroad shall enjoy the protection of the Romanian State and shall be bound to fulfill their duties, with the exception of those incompatible with their absence from the country.

 

Article 18

Aliens and stateless persons

(1) Aliens and stateless persons living in Romania shall enjoy general protection of person and assets, as guaranteed by the Constitution and other laws.

(2) The right of asylum shall be granted and withdrawn under the provisions of the law, in compliance with the international treaties and covenants Romania is a party to.

 

Article 19

Extradition and expulsion

(1) No Romanian citizen may be extradited or expelled from Romania.

(2) Aliens and stateless persons may be extradited only in compliance with an international covenant or in terms of reciprocity.

(3) Expulsion or extradition shall be ruled by the Court.

 

Article 20

International human rights treaties

(1) Constitutional provisions concerning the citizens' rights and liberties shall be interpreted and enforced in conformity with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with the covenants and other treaties Romania is a party to.

(2) Where any inconsistencies exist between the covenants and treaties on fundamental human rights Romania is a party to, and internal laws, the international regulations shall take precedence.

 

Article 21

Free access to justice

(1) Every person is entitled to bring cases before the courts for the defense of his legitimate rights, liberties and interests.

(2) The exercise of this right may not be restricted by any law.

 

 

Chapter II

Fundamental rights and freedoms

 

Article 22

Right to life, to physical and mental integrity

(1) The right to life, as well as the right to physical and mental integrity of person are guaranteed.

(2) No one may be subjected to torture or to any kind of inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment.

(3) The death penalty is prohibited.

 

Article 23

Personal freedom

(1) Individual freedom and security of person are inviolable.

(2) Search, detainment or arrest of a person shall be permitted only in the cases and under the procedure provided by law.

(3) Detention may not exceed twenty-four hours.

(4) Arrest shall be made under a warrant issued by a magistrate, for a maximum period of thirty days. The person arrested may lodge a complaint to the court about the legality of the warrant, and its Judge is bound to make a pronouncement by a motivated decision. The period of arrest may be extended only by a decision of the court.

(5) Any person detained or arrested shall be promptly informed, in a language he understands, of the grounds for his detention or arrest, and notified of the charges against him, as soon as practicable; the notification of the charges shall be made only in the presence of a lawyer of his own choosing or appointed «ex officio».

(6) The release of the person detained or arrested shall be obligatory, if the grounds for his detention or arrest ceased to exist.

(7) A person under preventive custody shall have the right to apply for provisional release, under judicial control or on bail.

(8) Any person shall be presumed innocent till found guilty by a final decision of the court.

(9) Penalties can be established or applied only in accordance with and on the grounds of the law.

 

Article 24

Right to defense

(1) The right to defense is guaranteed.

(2) All throughout the trial, the parties shall have the right to be assisted by a lawyer of their own choosing or appointed «ex officio».

 

Article 25

Freedom of movement

(1) The right of free movement within the national territory and abroad is guaranteed. The law shall lay down the conditions for the exercise of this right.

(2) Every citizen is guaranteed the right to establish his domicile or residence anywhere in the country, to emigrate, and to return to his country.

 

Article 26

Personal and family privacy

(1) The public authorities shall respect and protect the intimate, family and private life.

(2) Any natural person has the right to freely dispose of himself unless by this he causes an infringement upon the rights and freedoms of others, on public order or morals.

 

Article 27

Inviolability of domicile

(1) The domicile and the residence are inviolable. No one may enter or remain in the domicile or residence of a person without consent.

(2) Derogation from provisions under paragraph (1) is permissible by law, in the following circumstances:

a) for carrying into execution a warrant for arrest or a court sentence;

b) to remove any danger against the life, physical integrity or assets of a person;

c) to defend national security or public order;

d) to prevent the spread of an epidemic.

(3) Searches may be ordered only by a magistrate and carried out exclusively under observance of the legal procedure.

(4) Searches at night time shall be prohibited, except in cases of «flagrante delicto».

 

Article 28

Secrecy of correspondence

Secrecy of the letters , telegrams and other postal communications, of telephone conversations and of any other legal means of communication is inviolable.

 

Article 29

Freedom of conscience

(1) Freedom of thought, opinion, and religious beliefs may not be restricted in any form whatsoever. No one may be compelled to embrace an opinion or religion contrary to his own convictions.

(2) Freedom of conscience is guaranteed; it must be manifested in a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect.

(3) All religions shall be free and organized in accordance with their own statutes, under the terms laid down by law.

(4) Any forms, means, acts or actions of religious enmity shall be prohibited in the relationships among the cults.

(5) Religious cults shall be autonomous from the State and shall enjoy support from it, including the facilitation of religious assistance in the army, in hospitals, prisons, homes and orphanages.

(6) Parents or legal tutors have the right to ensure, in accordance with their own convictions, the education of the minor children whose responsibility devolves on them.

 

Article 30

Freedom of expression

(1) Freedom of expression of thoughts, opinions, or beliefs, and freedom of any creation, by words, in writing, in pictures, by sounds or other means of communication in public are inviolable.

(2) Any censorship shall be prohibited.

(3) Freedom of the press also involves the free setting up of publications.

(4) No publication may be suppressed.

(5) The law may impose upon the mass media the obligation to make public their financing source.

(6) Freedom of expression shall not be prejudicial to the dignity, honor, privacy of person, and the right to one's own image.

(7) Any defamation of the country and the nation, any instigation to a war of aggression, to national, racial, class or religious hatred, any incitement to discrimination, territorial separatism, or public violence, as well as any obscene conduct contrary to morality shall be prohibited by law.

(8) Civil liability for any information or creation made public falls upon the publisher or producer, the author, the producer of the artistic performance, the owner of the copying facilities, radio or television station, under the terms laid down by law. Indictable offenses of the press shall be established by law.

 

Article 31

Right to information

(1) A person's right of access to any information of public interest cannot be restricted.

(2) The public authorities, according to their competence, shall be bound to provide for correct information of the citizens in public affairs and matters of personal interest.

(3) The right to information shall not be prejudicial to the protection of the young or to national security.

(4) Public and private media shall be bound to provide correct information to the public opinion.

(5) Public radio and television services shall be autonomous. They must guarantee for any important social and political group the exercise of the right to be on the air. The organization of these services and the Parliamentary control over their activity shall be regulated by an organic law.

 

Article 32

Right to education

(1) The right to education is provided for by the compulsory general education, by education in high schools and vocational schools, by higher education, as well as other forms of instruction and post-graduate refresher courses.

(2) Education of all grades shall be in Romanian. Education may also be conducted in a foreign language of international use, under the terms laid down by law.

(3) The right of persons belonging to national minorities to learn their mother tongue, and their right to be educated in this language are guaranteed; the ways to exercise these rights shall be regulated by law.

(4) Public education shall be free, according to the law.

(5) Educational establishments, including private institutions shall be set up and conduct their activity according to the provisions of the law.

(6) The autonomy of the Universities is guaranteed.

(7) The State shall ensure the freedom of religious education, in accordance with the specific requirements of each religious cult. In public schools, religious education is organized and guaranteed by law.

 

Article 33

Right to protection of health

(1) The right to the protection of health is guaranteed.

(2) The State shall be bound to take measures to ensure public hygiene and health.

(3) The organization of the medical care and social security system in case of sickness, accidents, maternity and recovery, the control over the exercise of medical professions and paramedical activities, as well as other measures to protect physical and mental health of person shall be established according to the law.

 

Article 34

Right to vote

(1) Every citizen having attained the age of eighteen by or on the election day shall have the right to vote.

(2) Mentally deficient or alienated, laid under interdiction, as well as persons disenfranchised by a final decision of the court cannot vote.

 

Article 35

Right to be elected

(1) Eligibility is granted to all citizens having the right to vote, who meet the requirements in Article 16 paragraph (3), unless they are forbidden to join a political party, in accordance with Article 37 paragraph (3).

(2) Candidates must have attained, by or on the election day, the age of at least twenty-three, to be elected to the Chamber of Deputies or local administration, and at least thirty-five, to be elected to the Senate or to the office of President of Romania.

 

Article 36

Freedom of assembly

Public meetings, processions, demonstrations or any other assembly shall be free and may be organized and held only peacefully, without arms of any kind whatsoever.

 

Article 37

Right to association

(1) Citizens may freely associate into political parties, trade unions and other forms of association.

(2) Any political parties or organizations which, by their aims or activity, militate against political pluralism, the principles of a State governed by the rule of law, or against the sovereignty, integrity or independence of Romania shall be unconstitutional.

(3) Judges of the Constitutional Court, the Advocates of the People, magistrates, active members of the Armed Forces, policemen and other categories of civil servants, established by an organic law, may not join political parties.

(4) Secret associations are prohibited.

 

Article 38

Labor and social protection of labor

(1) The right to work cannot be restricted. Everyone has the free choice of profession and workplace.

(2) All employees have the right to social protection of labor. The protecting measures concern safety and hygiene of work, working conditions for women and the young, the setting up of a minimum wage per economy, weekends, paid annual leave, work carried out under hard conditions, as well as other specific situations.

(3) The normal duration of a working day is of maximum eight hours, on the average.

(4) On equal work with men, women shall get equal wages.

(5) The right to collective labor bargaining and the binding force of collective agreements shall be guaranteed.

 

Article 39

Prohibition of forced labor

(1) Forced labor is prohibited.

(2) Forced labor does not include:

a) any service of a military character or activities performed in lieu thereof by those who, according to the law, are exempted from compulsory military service for conscientious objection;

b) the work of a sentenced person, carried out under normal conditions, during detention or conditional release;

c) any services required to deal with a calamity or any other danger, as well as those which are part of normal civil obligations as established by law.

 

Article 40

Right to strike

(1) The employees have the right to strike in the defense of their professional, economic and social interests.

(2) The law shall regulate the conditions and limits governing the exercise of this right, as well as the guarantees necessary to ensure the essential services for the society.

 

Article 41

Protection of private property

(1) The right of property, as well as the debts incurring on the State are guaranteed. The content and limitations of these rights shall be established by law.

(2) Private property shall be equally protected by law, irrespective of its owner. Aliens and stateless persons may not acquire the right of property on land.

(3) No one may be expropriated, except on grounds of public utility, established according to the law, against just compensation paid in advance.

(4) For projects of general interest, the public authorities are entitled to use the subsoil of any real estate with the obligation to pay compensation to its owner for the damages caused to the soil, plantations or buildings, as well as for other damages imputable to these authorities.

(5) Compensations provided under paragraphs (3) and (4) shall be agreed upon with the owner, or by the decision of the court when a settlement cannot be reached.

(6) The right of property compels to the observance of duties relating to environmental protection and ensurance of good neighborliness, as well as of other duties incumbent upon the owner, in accordance with the law or custom.

(7) Legally acquired assets may not be confiscated. Legality of acquirement shall be presumed.

(8) Any goods intended for, used or resulting from a criminal or minor offence may be confiscated only in accordance with the provisions of the law.

 

Article 42

Inheritance right

The right of inheritance is guaranteed.

 

Article 43

Living standard

(1) The State shall be bound to take measures of economic development and social protection, of a nature to ensure a decent living standard for its citizens.

(2) Citizens have the right to pensions, paid maternity leave, medical care in public health establishments, unemployment benefits, and other forms of social care, as provided by law.

 

Article 44

Family

(1) The Family is founded on the freely consented marriage of the spouses, their full equality, as well as the right and duty of the parents to ensure the upbringing, education and instruction of their children.

(2) The terms for entering into marriage, dissolution and nullity of marriage shall be established by law. Religious wedding may be celebrated only after civil marriage.

(3) Children born out of wedlock are equal before the law with those born in wedlock.

 

Article 45

Protection of children and the youth

(1) Children and the young shall enjoy special protection and assistance in the pursuit of their rights.

(2) The State shall grant state allowances for children and benefits for the care of sick or disabled children. Other forms of social protection for children and the young shall be established by law.

(3) The exploitation of minors, their employment in activities that might be harmful to their health, or morals, or endanger their life and normal development are prohibited.

(4) Minors under the age of fifteen may not be employed for any paid labor.

(5) The public authorities are bound to contribute to secure the conditions towards the free participation of young people in the political, social, economic, cultural and sporting life of the country.

 

Article 46

Protection of the disabled persons

The disabled shall enjoy special protection. The State shall ensure the promotion of a national policy of preventive care, treatment, readjustment, education, instruction and social integration of the disabled, while observing the rights and duties of their parents or legal tutors.

 

Article 47

Right of petition

(1) Citizens have the right to apply to the public authorities by petitions formulated only in the name of the signatories.

(2) Legally established organizations have the right to forward petitions, exclusively on behalf of the collective body they represent.

(3) The exercise of the right of petition shall be tax-exempted.

(4) The public authorities are bound to answer to petitions within terms and under conditions as established by law.

 

Article 48

Right of a person aggrieved by a public authority

(1) Any person aggrieved in his legitimate right by an administrative act or failure of a public authority to solve his application within the legal term is entitled to the acknowledgment of his right, annulment of the act and remedies for the damage.

(2) The conditions and limits on the exercise of this right shall be regulated by an organic law.

(3) The state bears patrimonial liability, according to the law, for damages caused by judicial errors in criminal cases.

 

Article 49

Restriction on the exercise of certain rights or freedoms

(1) The exercise of certain rights or freedoms may be restricted only by law, and only if absolutely unavoidable, as the case may be, for: the defense of national security, public order, health or morals, of the citizens' rights and freedoms; as required for conducting a criminal investigation; for the prevention of the consequences of a natural calamity or extremely grave disaster.

(2) The restriction shall be proportional to the extent of the situation that determined it and may not infringe upon the existence of the respective right or freedom.

 

Chapter III

Fundamental duties

 

Article 50

Faithfulness towards the country

(1) Faithfulness towards the country is sacred.

(2) Citizens holding public offices, as well as the military, are liable for the loyal fulfillment of the obligations they are bound to, and shall, for this purpose, take the oath as requested by law.

 

Article 51

Observance of Constitution and laws

The observance of the Constitution, of its supremacy and of the laws is binding.

 

Article 52

Defense of the country

(1) Citizens have the right and duty to defend Romania.

(2) The military service is compulsory for all Romanian male citizens aged twenty, except for the cases provided by law.

(3) To be trained in the active military service, citizens may be summoned up to the age of thirty-five.

 

Article 53

Financial contributions

(1) Citizens are under the obligation to contribute to public expenditure, by taxes and duties.

(2) The legal taxation system must ensure a fair distribution of the tax burden.

(3) Any other dues shall be prohibited, save those determined by law, under exceptional circumstances.

 

Article 54

Exercise of rights and freedoms

Romanian citizens, aliens and stateless persons shall exercise their constitutional rights and freedoms in good faith, without any infringement of the rights and liberties of others.

 

 

Chapter IV

Advocate of the People

 

Article 55

Appointment and role

(1) The Advocate of the People shall be appointed by the Senate, for a term of office of four years, to defend the citizens' rights and freedoms. The organization and functioning of the Advocate of the People institution shall be regulated by an organic law.

(2) The Advocate of the People may not perform any other public or private office.

 

Article 56

Exercise of powers

(1) The Advocate of the People shall exercise his powers *ex officio* or upon request by persons aggrieved in their rights and freedoms, within limits established by law.

(2) It is binding upon the public authorities to give the Advocate of the People the necessary support in the exercise of his powers.

 

Article 57

Report before Parliament

The Advocate of the People shall report before the two Parliament Chambers, annually or on request thereof. The reports may contain recommendations on legislation or measures of any other nature for the defense of the citizens' rights and freedoms.

 

Title III

Public Authorities

 

Chapter I

Parliament

 

Section 1

Organization and Functioning

 

Article 58

Role and structure

(1) Parliament is the supreme representative body of the Romanian people and the sole legislative authority of the State.

(2) Parliament consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.

 

Article 59

Election of the Chambers

(1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall be elected by universal, equal, direct, secret and free suffrage, in accordance with the electoral law.

(2) Organizations of citizens belonging to national minorities, which fail to obtain the number of votes for representation in Parliament, have the right to one Deputy seat each, under the terms of the electoral law. Citizens of a national minority are entitled to be represented by one organization only.

(3) The number of Deputies and Senators shall be established by the electoral law, in proportion to the population of Romania.

 

Article 60

Term of office

(1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate are elected for a term of office of four years, which may be prolonged by an organic law, in a case of war or catastrophe.

(2) Elections to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall be held within three months from the expiration of the term of office or Parliament dissolution.

(3) The newly elected Parliament shall meet upon convening by the President of Romania, within twenty days after elections.

(4) The Chambers' term of office shall be prolonged until the new Parliament legally meets. During this period, the Constitution may not undergo any revision, nor may any organic law be passed, amended or abrogated.

(5) Bills or legislative proposals entered on the agenda of the preceding Parliament shall be carried over into the session of the new Parliament.

 

Article 61

Organizational structure

(1) The organization and functioning of each Chamber shall be regulated by its own Standing Orders. Financial resources of the Chambers shall be provided for in the budgets approved by them.

(2) Each Chamber shall elect its Standing Bureau. The President of the Chamber of Deputies and the President of the Senate shall be elected for the Chambers' term of office. The other members of the Standing Bureaus shall be elected at the opening of each session. The members of the Standing Bureaus may be dismissed before the expiration of the term of office.

(3) Deputies and Senators may be organized into Parliamentary Groups, according to the Standing Orders of each Chamber.

(4) Each Chamber shall set up Standing Committees and may institute inquiry or other special committees. The Chambers may set up joint committees.

(5) The Standing Bureaus and Parliamentary Committees shall be made up so as to reflect the political spectrum of each Chamber.

 

Article 62

Joint sessions

(1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall meet in separate, and joint sessions. The proceedings in a joint session shall be held in accordance with regulations passed by a majority vote of the Deputies and Senators.

(2) The Chambers shall meet in joint sessions in order:

a) to receive the message of the President of Romania;

b) to approve the State Budget and the State social security budget;

c) to declare general or partial mobilization;

d) to declare a state of war;

e) to suspend or terminate armed hostilities;

f) to examine reports of the Supreme Council of National Defense and of the Court of Audit;

g) to appoint, on proposal of the President of Romania, the director of the Romanian Information Service, and to exercise control over the activity of this Service;

h) to fulfill any other prerogatives, which, in accordance with the Constitution or the Standing Orders, shall be exercised in a joint session.

 

Article 63

Sessions

(1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall meet in two ordinary sessions every year. The first session begins in February and is due to last by the end of June at the latest. The second session begins in September and is due to last by the end of December at the latest.

(2) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate may also meet in extraordinary sessions, upon request of the President of Romania, the Standing Bureau of each Chamber or of at least one third of the number of Deputies or Senators.

(3) Each Chamber shall be convened by its President.

 

Article 64

Acts of Parliament and legal quorum

The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall pass laws, and carry resolutions and motions, in the presence of the majority of their members.

 

Article 65

Publicity of sessions

(1) The sessions of both Chambers shall be public.

(2) The Chambers may decide that certain sessions be secret.

 

Section 2

Status of Deputies and Senators

 

Article 66

Representative mandate

(1) In the exercise of their mandate, Deputies and Senators shall be in the service of the people.

(2) Any imperative mandate shall be null.

 

Article 67

Term of Office of Deputies and Senators

(1) Deputies and Senators shall enter on the exercise of their office on the same day the Chamber they are a member of has legally met, on condition that their election is validated.

(2) The capacity as a Deputy or Senator shall cease on the same day the newly elected Chambers have legally met, or in a case of resignation, disenfranchisement, incompatibility, or death.

 

Article 68

Incompatibilities

(1) No one may be a Deputy and a Senator at one and the same time.

(2) The capacity as a Deputy or Senator is incompatible with the exercise of any public office in authority, with the exception of Government membership.

(3) Other incompatibilities shall be established by an organic law.

 

Article 69

Parliamentary immunity

(1) No Deputy or Senator shall be detained, arrested, searched or prosecuted for a criminal or minor offence without authorization of the Chamber he is a member of, after being given a hearing. The case shall be in the competence of the Supreme Court of Justice.

(2) In the case of a Deputy or Senator being caught in the act, he may be detained and searched. The Minister of Justice shall promptly inform the President of the respective Chamber about the detention and search. In case the Chamber thus notified finds no grounds for his detention, it shall immediately order that this detainment be repealed.

 

Article 70

Freedom of opinions

No Deputy or Senator shall be liable to judicial proceedings for the votes cast, or political opinions expressed in the exercise of his mandate.

 

Article 71

Emoluments and other rights

Deputies and Senators shall receive monthly emoluments. The amount of the emoluments and other rights shall be established by law.

 

Section 3

Legislation and Procedure

 

Article 72

Legislative scope

(1) Parliament passes constitutional, organic, and ordinary laws.

(2) Constitutional laws shall be pertaining to the revision of the Constitution.

(3) Organic laws shall regulate:

a) the electoral system;

b) the organization and functioning of political parties;

c) the organization and holding of a referendum;

d) the organization of the Government and the Supreme Council of National Defense;

e) the states of siege and emergency;

f) criminal offenses, penalties and the execution thereof;

g) granting of amnesty or collective pardon;

h) the organization and functioning of the Superior Council of the Magistracy, the courts, the Public Ministry and the Court of Audit;

i) the status of civil servants;

j) contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts;

k) the general legal status of property and inheritance;

l) general rules covering labor relations, trade unions and social security;

m) the general organization of education;

n) general statutory rules of religious cults;

o) the organization of local administration, of the territory, as well as general rules on local autonomy;

p) ways and means to establish the exclusive economic zone;

r) other fields, for which the Constitution provides the enactment of organic laws.

 

Article 73

Legislative initiative

(1) The legislative initiative lies with the Government, Deputies, Senators, as well as no fewer than 250,000 citizens having the right to vote. The citizens exercising the right to legislative initiative must belong to at least one quarter of the country's counties, while in each of these counties or the city of Bucharest at least 10,000 signatures should be registered in the support of this initiative.

(2) A legislative initiative of the citizens may not touch on matters concerning taxation, international affairs, amnesty or pardon.

(3) The Government shall exercise its legislative initiative by introducing bills in one of the Chambers.

(4) Deputies, Senators and citizens exercising the right of legislative initiative may present proposals only in the form required for a bill.

(5) Legislative proposals shall be first submitted for being passed to the Chamber before which they were read.

 

Article 74

Passing of bills and resolutions

(1) Organic laws and resolutions concerning the Standing Orders of each Chamber shall be passed by the majority vote of its members.

(2) Ordinary laws and resolutions shall be passed by the majority vote of the members present in each Chamber.

(3) On request by the Government or on its own initiative, Parliament may pass bills or legislative proposals under an emergency procedure, established in accordance with the Standing Orders of each Chamber.

 

Article 75

Sending of bills and legislative proposals from one Chamber to the other

Bills or legislative proposals passed by one Chamber shall be sent to the other Parliament Chamber. If the bill or legislative proposal is rejected in the latter, it shall be sent back, for a new debate, to the Chamber that had passed it. A second rejection is final.

 

Article 76

Mediation

(1) If one of the Chambers has passed a bill or legislative proposal, in a different wording from that approved by the other Chamber, the Presidents of both Chambers shall initiate a meditation procedure, by a parity Committee.

(2) In case no agreement can been reached in the Committee, or one Chamber has not approved the Mediation Committee report, the texts in conflict shall be submitted for debate to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, assembled in a joint session, that shall adopt the final text by a majority vote, as provided under Article 74, paragraphs (1) or (2).

 

Article 77

Promulgation of laws

(1) A law shall be submitted for promulgation to the President of Romania. Promulgation shall be given within twenty days after receipt of the law.

(2) Before promulgation, the President of Romania may return the law to Parliament for reconsideration, and he may do so only once.

(3) In case the President has requested that the law be reconsidered or a review has been asked for as to its conformity with the Constitution, promulgation shall be made within ten days from receiving the law passed after its reconsideration, or the decision of the Constitutional Court confirming its Constitutionality.

 

Article 78

Entry into force of laws

Laws shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania and come into force on the day of publication or the date provided in its text.

 

Article 79

Legislative Council

(1) The Legislative Council shall be an advisory expert body of Parliament, that initials draft normative acts for the purpose of a systematic unification and coordination of the whole body of laws. It shall keep the official record of the legislation of Romania.

(2) The setting up, organization and functioning of the Legislative Council shall be regulated by an organic law.

 

Chapter II

The President of Romania

 

Article 80

Role of the President

(1) The President of Romania shall represent the Romanian State and is the safeguard of the national independence, unity and territorial integrity of the country.

(2) The President of Romania shall guard the observance of the Constitution and the proper functioning of the public authorities. To this effect, he shall act as a mediator between the Powers in the State, as well as between the State and society.

 

Article 81

Election of the President

(1) The President of Romania shall be elected by universal, equal, direct, secret and free suffrage.

(2) The candidate who, in the first ballot, obtained a majority of votes of the electors entered on the electoral lists shall be declared elected.

(3) In the case that no candidate has obtained such majority, a second ballot shall be held between the first two candidates highest in the order of the number of votes cast for them in the first ballot. The candidate having the greatest number of votes shall be declared elected.

(4) No one may hold the office of President of Romania but for two terms at the most, that can also be consecutive.

 

Article 82

Validation of mandate and oath-taking

(1) The election returns for the Presidency of Romania shall be validated by the Constitutional Court.

(2) The candidate whose election has been validated shall take before the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in a joint session, the following oath: "I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the Country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. So help me God!"

 

Article 83

Term of office

(1) The term of office of the President of Romania is four years, and he shall exercise his mandate from the day he took the oath.

(2) The President of Romania shall exercise his office until the new President-elect takes the oath.

(3) The term of office of the President of Romania may be prolonged, by an organic law, in the event of war or catastrophe.

 

Article 84

Incompatibilities and immunities

(1) During his term of office, the President of Romania may not be a member of any political party, nor may he perform any other public or private office.

(2) The President of Romania shall enjoy immunity. Provisions under Article 70 shall apply accordingly.

(3) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate may, in a joint session, carry a resolution upon the impeachment of the President of Romania for high treason, by the vote of at least two thirds of the number of Deputies and Senators. The case shall be within the competence of the Supreme Court of Justice, according to the provisions of the law. The President shall be removed from office «de jure» on the date the Court sentence remains final.

 

Article 85

Appointment of the Government

(1) The President of Romania shall designate a candidate to the office of Prime Minister and appoint the Government on the vote of confidence of Parliament.

(2) In the event of government reshuffle or vacancy of office, the President shall dismiss and appoint, on the proposal of the Prime Minister, some members of the Government.

 

Article 86

Consultation with the Government

The President of Romania may consult with the Government about urgent, extremely important matters.

 

Article 87

Participation in meetings of the Government

(1) The President of Romania may participate in the meetings of the Government debating upon matters of national interest with regard to foreign policy, the defense of the country, ensurance of public order, and on request by the Prime Minister, in other instances as well.

(2) The President of Romania shall preside over the Government meetings he participates in.

 

Article 88

Messages

The President of Romania shall address Parliament by messages on the main political issues of the Nation.

 

Article 89

Dissolution of Parliament

(1) After consultation with the Presidents of both Chambers and the leaders of the Parliamentary groups, the President of Romania may dissolve Parliament, if no vote of confidence has been obtained to form a government within 60 days after the first request was made, and only after rejection of at least two requests for investiture.

(2) During the same year, Parliament can be dissolved only once.

(3) Parliament cannot be dissolved during the last six months of the term of office of the President of Romania, nor can it be dissolved during a state of siege or emergency.

 

Article 90

Referendum

The President of Romania may, after consultation with Parliament, ask the people of Romania to express, by referendum, its will on matters of national interest.

 

Article 91

Powers in matters of foreign policy

(1) The President shall, in the name of Romania, conclude international treaties negotiated by the Government, and then submit them to Parliament for ratification, within 60 days.

(2) The President shall, on proposal by the Government, accredit and recall diplomatic envoys of Romania, and approve the setting up, closing down or change in rank of diplomatic missions.

(3) Diplomatic envoys of other states shall be accredited to the President of Romania.

 

Article 92

Powers in matters of defense

(1) The President of Romania shall be Commanderin-Chief of the Armed Forces and preside over the Supreme Council of National Defense.

(2) He may declare, with prior approval of Parliament, partial or general mobilization of the Armed Forces. Only in exceptional cases shall the decision of the President be subsequently submitted for approval to Parliament, within five days from adoption thereof.

(3) In the event of an armed aggression against the country, the President of Romania shall take measures to repel the aggression, and he shall promptly bring them to the cognizance of Parliament, by a message. If Parliament does not sit in a session, it shall be convened «de jure», within 24 hours from the outbreak of the aggression.

 

Article 93

Emergency measures

(1) The President of Romania shall, according to the law, institute the state of siege or emergency in the whole or part of the country, and shall request Parliament approval of the measure thus adopted, within five days from adoption thereof.

(2) If Parliament does not sit in a session, it shall be convened «de jure» within 48 hours from the institution of the state of siege or emergency, and shall function throughout this state.

 

Article 94

Other powers

The President of Romania shall also have the following powers:

a) to confer decorations and titles of honor;

b) to make promotions to the ranks of marshal, general and admiral;

c) to make appointments to public offices, under the terms provided by law;

d) to grant individual pardon.

 

Article 95

Suspension from office

(1) In case of having committed grave acts infringing upon Constitutional provisions, the President of Romania may be suspended from office by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in joint session, by a majority vote of Deputies and Senators, and after consultation with the Constitutional Court. The President may explain before Parliament with regard to imputations brought against him.

(2) The proposal of suspension from office may be initiated by at least one third of the number of Deputies and Senators, and the President shall be immediately notified thereof.

(3) If the proposal of suspension from office has been approved, a referendum shall be held within 30 days, in order to remove the President from office.

 

Article 96

Vacancy of office

(1) Vacancy of the office of President of Romania shall be due upon his resignation, removal from office, permanent inability to discharge his powers and duties, or death.

(2) Within three months from the date when the Presidency of Romania fell vacant, the Government shall organize elections for a new President.

 

Article 97

Interim of office

(1) In case of vacancy in the office of President, or if the President be suspended from office or be temporarily incapable to exercise his powers, the interim shall devolve, in this order, on the President of the Senate or the President of the Chamber of Deputies.

(2) Powers provided for under Articles 88-90 shall not be exercised by the Acting President during the interim office.

 

Article 98

Liability of Acting President

If the person acting as President of Romania has committed grave acts infringing upon Constitutional provisions, Articles 95 and 97 shall be applied accordingly.

 

Article 99

Acts of the President

(1) In the exercise of his powers, the President of Romania shall issue decrees, which shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania. Absence of publicity entails the non-existence of a decree.

(2) The decrees issued by the President of Romania in the exercise of his powers, as provided for under Article 91 paragraphs (1) and (2), Article 92 paragraphs (2) and (3), Article 93 paragraph (1), and Article 94 letters a), b) and d) shall be countersigned by the Prime Minister.

 

Article 100

Compensation, other rights

The compensation and other rights of the President of Romania shall be established by law.

 

 

Chapter III

The Government

 

Article 101

Role and structure

(1) The Government shall, in accordance with its government program accepted by Parliament, ensure the implementation of the domestic and foreign policy of the country, and exercise the general management of public administration.

(2) In the exercise of its powers, the Government shall cooperate with the social bodies concerned.

(3) The Government consists of the Prime Minister, Ministers, and other members as established by an organic law.

 

Article 102

Investiture

(1) The President of Romania shall designate a candidate to the office of Prime Minister, as a result of his consultation with the party which has obtained absolute majority in Parliament, or- unless such majority exists - with the parties represented in Parliament.

(2) The candidate to the office of Prime Minister shall, within ten days after his designation, seek the vote of confidence of Parliament upon the program and complete list of the Government.

(3) The program and list of the Government shall be debated upon by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in joint session. Parliament shall grant confidence to the Government by a majority vote of Deputies and Senators.

 

Article 103

Oath of allegiance

(1) The Prime Minister, Ministers and other members of the Government shall individually take an oath before the President of Romania, as provided for under Article 82.

(2) The Government as a whole and each of its members shall exercise the mandate from the date of taking the oath.

 

Article 104

Incompatibilities

(1) Membership of the Government shall be incompatible with the exercise of any other public office in authority, except the office of a Deputy or Senator. Likewise, it shall be incompatible with the exercise of any office of professional representation paid by a trading organization.

(2) Other incompatibilities shall be established by an organic law.

 

Article 105

Termination of Government membership

Membership of the Government shall cease upon resignation, dismissal, disenfranchisement, incompatibility, death, or in any other cases provided for by law.

 

Article 106

Prime Minister

(1) The Prime Minister shall direct Government actions and co-ordinate activities of its members, under observance of the powers and duties incumbent on them. Likewise, he shall submit to the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate reports and statements on Government policy, to be debated with priority.

(2) If the Prime Minister finds himself in one of the situations provided for under Article 105, or in case of his inability to exercise his powers, the President of Romania shall designate another member of the Government as interim Prime Minister, to discharge the powers of a Prime Minister until formation of the new Government. The interim during the inability to exercise the powers of the said office shall cease if the Prime Minister resumes his activity in the Government.

(3) Provisions under paragraph (2) shall apply accordingly to the other members of the Government, on proposal by the Prime Minister, for a period of 45 days, at the most.

 

Article 107

Acts of the Government

(1) The Government shall adopt Decisions and Orders.

(2) Decisions shall be issued to organize the execution of laws.

(3) Orders shall be issued under a special enabling law, within the limits and in conformity with the provisions thereof.

(4) Decisions and Orders adopted by the Government shall be signed by the Prime Minister, countersigned by the Ministers who are bound to act to carry them into execution, and shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania. Absence of publicity entails non existence of a decision or order. Decisions of a military character shall be conveyed only to the institutions concerned.

 

Article 108

Responsibility of members of the Government

(1) The Government is politically responsible for its entire activity only before Parliament. Each member of the Government is politically and jointly answerable with the others for the activity and Acts of the Government.

(2) It is only the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate and the President of Romania that shall have the right to demand criminal prosecutions be taken against members of the Government for acts committed in the exercise of their office. If such criminal prosecution has been requested, the President of Romania may decree that they be suspended from office. Institution of proceedings against a member of the Government entails suspension from office. The case shall be within the competence of the Supreme Court of Justice.

(3) Cases of liability, and penalties applicable to members of the Government shall be regulated by a Law on Ministerial responsibility.

 

Article 109

End of the term of office

(1) The Government shall exercise its term of office until validation of the general parliamentary elections.

(2) The Government shall be dismissed on the date Parliament withdraws confidence, or if the Prime Minister finds himself in one of the situations under Article 105 or in case of his inability to exercise powers for more than 45 days.

(3) In situations such as under paragraph (2) provisions of Article 102 shall apply accordingly.

(4) The Government whose term of office ceased in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (2) shall continue to fulfill only the acts required for the administration of public affairs, until the members of the new Government take the oath.

 

Chapter IV

Relations between Parliament and the Government

 

Article 110

Information to Parliament

(1) The Government and other agencies of Public Administration shall, within the Parliamentary control over their activity, be bound to present any information and documents requested by the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate, or Parliamentary Committees, through their respective Presidents. In case a legislative initiative involves amendment of provisions of the State Budget or the State social security budget, the request for information shall be compulsory.

(2) Members of the Government are entitled to attend the proceedings of Parliament. If they are requested to be present, participation shall be compulsory.

 

Article 111

Questions and interpellations

(1) The Government and each of its members shall be bound to answer to questions or interpellations raised by Deputies or Senators.

(2) The Chamber of Deputies or the Senate may carry a motion expressing the stand as to the issue making the point of interpellation.

 

Article 112

Motion of censure

(1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate may, in joint session, withdraw confidence from the Government, by carrying a motion of censure by a majority vote of the Deputies and Senators.

(2) The motion of censure may be initiated by at least one fourth of the total number of Deputies and Senators, and shall be notified to the Government upon the date of its tabling.

(3) The motion of censure shall be debated upon three days after its presentation in the joint session of the Chambers.

(4) If the motion of censure fails to be passed, the Deputies and the Senators who signed it may not submit another one during the same session, except for the case that the Government assumes responsibility in conformity with Article 113.

 

Article 113

Assumption of responsibility by the Government

(1) The Government may assume responsibility before the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in joint session, upon a program, a general policy statement, or a bill.

(2) The Government shall be dismissed if a motion of censure, tabled within three days from the date of presenting the program, the general policy statement, or the bill, has been passed in accordance with provisions under Article 112.

(3) If the Government has not been dismissed in accordance with paragraph (2), the bill presented shall be considered as passed, and the program or the general policy statement become binding on the Government.

(4) In case the President of Romania demands reconsideration of the law passed according to paragraph (3), the debate thereon shall be carried in the joint session of both Chambers.

 

Article 114

Legislative delegation

(1) Parliament may pass a special law enabling the Government to issue orders in fields outside the scope of organic laws.

(2) The enabling law shall compulsorily establish the field and the date up to which orders can be issued.

(3) If the enabling law so requests, orders shall be submitted to Parliament for approval, according to the legislative procedure, until expiration of the enabling term. Non-compliance with the term entails discontinuation of effectiveness of the order.

(4) In exceptional cases, the Government may adopt emergency orders, which shall come into force only after their submission to Parliament for approval. If Parliament does not sit in a session, it shall obligatorily be convened.

(5) Orders shall be approved or rejected by a law which must also contain the orders that ceased to be effective in accordance with paragraph (3).

 

Chapter V

Public Administration

 

Section 1

Specialized Central Public Administration

 

Article 115

Structure

(1) Ministries shall be organized only in subordination to the Government.

(2) Other specialized agencies may be organized in subordination to the Government or Ministries, or as autonomous administrative authorities.

 

Article 116

Establishment

(1) Ministries shall be set up, organized, and function in accordance with the law.

(2) The Government and Ministries may, on the authorization of the Court of Audit, set up specialized agencies in their subordination, but only if the law acknowledges the competence thereof.

(3) Autonomous administrative authorities may be established by an organic law.

 

Article 117

The Armed Forces

(1) The Army shall be exclusively subordinated to the will of the people, to guarantee the sovereignty, independence and unity of the State, the Country's territorial integrity, and Constitutional democracy.

(2) The structure of the national defense system, the organization of the Army, the preparation of the population, economy and territory for the defense, as well as the status of the military shall be regulated by an organic law.

(3) Provisions under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall apply accordingly to the police and security services of the State, as well as to other components of the Armed Forces.

(4) The organization of military or paramilitary activities outside a State authority is prohibited.

(5) No foreign troops may enter or cross the territory of Romania but on terms established by law.

 

Article 118

Supreme Council of National Defense

The Supreme Council of National Defense shall organize and co-ordinate in unitary command the activities concerning the country's defense and national security.

 

Section 2

Local Public Administration

 

Article 119

Basic principles

Public Administration in territorial-administrative units is based on the principle of local autonomy and decentralization of public services.

 

Article 120

Communal and town authorities

(1) The Public Administration authorities, by which local autonomy in communes and towns is implemented, shall be the Local Councils and Mayors elected, in accordance with the law.

(2) The Local Councils and Mayors shall act as autonomous administrative authorities and manage public affairs in communes and towns, in accordance with the law.

(3) Authorities under paragraph (1) may also be constituted in the territorial-administrative subdivisions of municipalities.

 

Article 121

County Council

(1) The County Council is the Public Administration authority co-ordinating the activity of Commune and Town Councils, to carry out the public services of county interest.

(2) The County Council shall be elected and function in accordance with the law.

 

Article 122

The Prefect

(1) The Government shall appoint a Prefect in each county and in the City of Bucharest.

(2) The Prefect is the representative of the Government at local level and shall direct any decentralized public services of the Ministries and other central agencies in the territorial-administrative units.

(3) The powers of the Prefect shall be established by law.

(4) The Prefect may challenge, in the administrative court, an act of the County Council, of a Local Council, or of a Mayor, in case he deems it unlawful. The act thus challenged shall be suspended «de jure».

 

Chapter VI

Judicial Authority

 

Section 1

Courts of Law

 

Article 123

Administration of justice

(1) Justice shall be rendered in the name of the law.

(2) Judges shall be independent and subject only to the law.

 

Article 124

Status of justice

(1) Judges appointed by the President of Romania shall be irremovable, according to the law. The President and other Judges of the Supreme Court of Justice shall be appointed for a term of six years, and may be reinvested in office. Promotion, transfer, and sanctions against Judges may be decided upon only by the Superior Council of the Magistracy, in accordance with the law.

(2) The office of a Judge shall be incompatible with any other public or private office, except that of an academic professorial activity.

 

Article 125

Courts of law

(1) Justice shall be administered by the Supreme Court of Justice and other courts established by law.

(2) The setting up of courts of exception is prohibited.

(3) Competence and procedure of courts shall be regulated by law.

 

Article 126

Publicity of debates

Proceedings shall be public, except for the cases provided by law.

 

Article 127

Right to have an interpreter

(1) Procedure shall be conducted in Romanian.

(2) Citizens belonging to national minorities, as well as persons who cannot understand or speak Romanian have the right to take cognizance of all acts and files of the case, to speak before the Court and formulate conclusions, through an interpreter; in criminal trials, this right shall be ensured free of charge.

 

Article 128

Use of appeal

Against decisions of the Court, the parties concerned and the Public Ministry may exercise ways of appeal, in accordance with the law.

 

Article 129

Police in the Courts

Courts of law shall have police placed at their disposal.

 

Section 2

The Public Ministry

 

Article 130

Role of Public Ministry

(1) Within judicial activity, the Public Ministry shall represent general interests of the society and defend legal order, as well as the citizens' rights and freedoms.

(2) The Public Ministry shall discharge its powers through Public Prosecutors, constituted into public prosecutor's offices, in accordance with the law.

 

Article 131

Status of Public Prosecutors

(1) Public Prosecutors shall carry out their activity in accordance with the principle of legality, impartiality and hierarchical control, under the authority of the Minister of Justice.

(2) The office of a Prosecutor shall be incompatible with any other public or private office, except that of an academic professorial activity.

 

 

Section 3

Superior Council of the Magistracy

 

Article 132

Composition

The Superior Council of the Magistracy shall consist of magistrates elected for a term of four years by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in a joint session.

 

Article 133

Powers

(1) The Superior Council of the Magistracy shall nominate Judges and Public Prosecutors for appointment by the President of Romania, except those on probation, in accordance with the law. In this case, the proceedings shall be presided over by the Minister of Justice, who shall have no right to vote.

(2) The Superior Council of the Magistracy shall perform the role of a disciplinary council for Judges, in which case proceedings shall be presided over by the President of the Supreme Court of Justice.

 

Title IV

Economy and public finance

 

Article 134

Economy

(1) Romania's economy is a free market economy.

(2) The State must secure:

a) a free trade, protection of loyal competition, provision of a favorable framework in order to stimulate and value every factor of production;

b) protection of national interests in economic, financial and currency activity;

c) promotion of national scientific research;

d) exploitation of natural resources, in conformity with national interests;

e) environmental protection and recovery, as well as preservation of the ecological balance;

f) creation of all necessary conditions so as to increase the quality of life.

 

Article 135

Property

(1) The State shall protect property.

(2) Property is public or private.

(3) Public property belongs to the State or its territorial-administrative units.

(4) Subsoil riches of any nature, ways of communication, the air space, waters with hydropower availability and those which can be used for the public interest, beaches, territorial waters, natural resources of the economic zone and the continental shelf, as well as other assets established by law, shall be exclusively public property.

(5) Public-owned assets shall be inalienable. They may be taken over for administration by self-managed public companies or public institutions, or may be leased or granted in concession, in accordance with the law.

(6) Private property shall be, in accordance with the law, inviolable.

 

Article 136

Financial system

(1) Formation, administration, use and control of the financial resources of the State, of territorial-administrative units and public institutions shall be regulated by law.

(2) The national currency is the Leu, with its subdivision, the Ban.

 

Article 137

National Public Budget

(1) The National Public Budget shall comprise the State budget, the State social security budget and the local budgets of communes, towns and counties.

(2) The Government shall annually draft the State budget and the State social security budget, which it shall submit separately to Parliament for approval.

(3) If the Law on the State budget and the Law on the State social security budget fail to be passed by at least three days before expiration of the budgetary year, the previous year's State budget and State social security budget shall continue to be applied until adoption of the new budgets.

(4) Local budgets shall be drafted, approved and executed in accordance with the law.

(5) No budget expenditure shall be approved unless its financing source has been established.

 

Article 138

Taxes and duties

(1) Taxes, duties and any other revenue of the State budget and State social security budget shall be established only by law.

(2) Local taxes and duties shall be established by the local or county Councils, within limits and under the terms of the law.

 

Article 139

Court of Audit

(1) The Court of Audit shall exercise control on the formation, administration and use of the financial resources of the State and the public sector. The Court shall also have jurisdictional powers, as provided by law.

(2) The Court of Audit shall annually report to Parliament on the accounts of the National Public Budget administration in the expired budgetary year, including cases of mismanagement.

(3) On request by the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate, the Court of Audit shall check the management of public resources, and report on its findings.

(4) Members of the Court of Audit, appointed by Parliament, shall be independent and irremovable, according to the law. They shall be subject to the incompatibilities the law provides for Judges.

 

Title V

Constitutional Court

 

Article 140

Structure

(1) The Constitutional Court consists of nine Judges, appointed for a term of office of nine years, that cannot be prolonged or renewed.

(2) Three Judges shall be appointed by the Chamber of Deputies, three by the Senate, and three by the President of Romania.

(3) Judges of the Constitutional Court shall elect, by secret vote, the President thereof, for a term of three years.

(4) The Constitutional Court shall be renewed by one third every three years, in accordance with the provisions of the Court's organic law.

 

Article 141

Qualifications for appointment

Judges of the Constitutional Court must have graduated law, and have high professional competence and at least eighteen years experience in juristic or academic activities in law.

 

Article 142

Incompatibilities

The office of a Judge at Constitutional Court is incompatible with any other public or private office, except that of academic professorial activity.

 

Article 143

Independence and irremovability

Judges of the Constitutional Court shall be independent in the exercise of their office and irremovable during the term of office.

 

Article 144

Powers

The Constitutional Court shall have the following powers:

a) to adjudicate on the constitutionality of laws, before promulgation, upon notification by the President of Romania, by the President of either Chamber of Parliament, by the Government, the Supreme Court of Justice, by a number of at least 50 Deputies or at least 25 Senators, as well as, «ex officio», on initiatives to revise the Constitution;

b) to adjudicate on the constitutionality of the Standing Orders of Parliament, upon notification by the President of either Chamber, by a parliamentary group or a number of at least 50 Deputies or at least 25 Senators;

c) to decide on exceptions brought to the Courts of law as to the unconstitutionality of laws and orders;

d) to guard the observance of the procedure for the election of the President of Romania and to confirm the ballot returns;

e) to ascertain the circumstances which justify the interim in the exercise of office of President of Romania, and to report its findings to Parliament and the Government;

f) to give advisory opinion on the proposal to suspend the President of Romania from office;

g) to guard the observance of the procedure for the organization and holding of a referendum, and to confirm its returns;

h) to check on compliance with the conditions for the exercise of the legislative initiative by citizens;

i) to decide on objections of unconstitutionality of a political party.

 

Article 145

Decisions of the Constitutional Court

(1) In cases of unconstitutionality, in accordance with Article 144 letters a) and b), the law or orders shall be returned for reconsideration. If the law is passed again in the same formulation by a majority of at least two thirds of the members of each Chamber, the objection of unconstitutionality shall be removed, and promulgation thereof shall be binding.

(2) Decisions of the Constitutional Court shall be binding and effective only for the future. They shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania.

 

Title VI

Revision of the Constitution

 

Article 146

Initiative of Revision

(1) Revision of the Constitution may be initiated by the President of Romania on proposal of the Government, by at least one quarter of the number of Deputies or Senators, as well as by at least 500,000 citizens with the right to vote.

(2) The citizens who initiate the revision of the Constitution must belong to at least half the number of the counties in the country, and in each of the respective counties or in the City of Bucharest, at least 20,000 signatures must be recorded in support of this initiative.

 

Article 147

Procedure of Revision

(1) The draft or proposed revision must be adopted by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, by a majority of at least two thirds of the members of each Chamber.

(2) If no agreement can be reached by a mediation procedure, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall decide thereupon, in joint session, by the vote of at least three quarters of the number of Deputies and Senators.

(3) The revision shall be final after approval by a referendum held within 30 days from the date of passing the draft or proposed revision.

 

Article 148

Limits of Revision

(1) The provisions of this Constitution with regard to the national, independent, unitary and indivisible character of the Romanian State, the Republican form of government, territorial integrity, independence of the judiciary, political pluralism and official language shall not be subject to revision.

(2) Likewise, no revision shall be made if it results in the suppression of the citizens fundamental rights and freedoms, or the safeguards thereof.

(3) The Constitution shall not be revised during a state of siege or emergency, or at wartime.

 

Title VII

Final and transitory provisions

 

Article 149

Coming into force

This Constitution shall come into force on the date of adoption by referendum. On the same day, the Constitution of August 21, 1965 is and remains fully abrogated.

 

Article 150

Temporal conflict of laws

(1) The laws and all other normative acts shall remain in force in so far they are not contradicting the provisions of this Constitution.

(2) The Legislative Council shall, within 12 months from the effective date of the Law on its organization, examine the compliance of legislation with this Constitution and shall accordingly advance proposals to Parliament or to the Government, as the case may be.

 

Article 151

Current Institutions

(1) The Institutions of the Republic, in existence at the effective date of this Constitution, shall remain in operation until the setting up of the new institutions.

(2) The new Supreme Court of Justice shall, in accordance with the law, be appointed by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in a joint session, on proposal by the President of Romania, within six months from the effective date of this Constitution.

 

Article 152

Future Institutions

(1) Within 6 months from the effective date of this Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Court of Audit shall be set up.

(2) Judges of the first Constitutional Court shall be appointed for a term of three, six and nine years respectively. The President of Romania, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall designate one Judge each for every term.

 

The Constitution of Romania was adopted in the Constituent Assembly Session of November 21, 1991, and it has entered into force pursuant to its approval by the national referendum of December 8, 1991.

The text of the Constitution was published in the "Monitorul Oficial" (Official Gazette of Romania), Part I, No. 233/November 21, 1991.

 

©FB

Trascina file per caricare

Guvernul Romaniei

 

Constitutia Romaniei

 

1991

 

Titlul I - Principii generale

Articolul 1 - Statul roman

Articolul 2 - Suveranitatea

Articolul 3 - Teritoriul

Articolul 4 - Unitatea poporului si egalitatea intre cetateni

Articolul 5 - Cetatenia

Articolul 6 - Dreptul la identitate

Articolul 7 - Romanii din strainatate

Articolul 8 - Pluralismul si partidele politice

Articolul 9 - Sindicatele

Articolul 10 - Relatiile internationale

Articolul 11 - Dreptul international si dreptul intern

Articolul 12 - Simboluri nationale

Articolul 13 - Limba oficiala

Articolul 14 - Capitala

Titlul II - Drepturile, libertatile si indatoririle fundamentale

Capitolul I - Dispozitii comune

 

Articolul 15 - Universalitatea

Articolul 16 - Egalitatea in drepturi

Articolul 17 - Cetatenii romani in strainatate

Articolul 18 - Cetatenii straini si apatrizii

Articolul 19 - Extradarea si expulzarea

Articolul 20 - Tratatele internationale privind drepturile omului

Articolul 21 - Accesul liber la justitie

 

Capitolul II - Drepturile si libertatile fundamentale

 

Articolul 22 - Dreptul la viata si la integritate fizica si psihica

Articolul 23 - Libertatea individuala

Articolul 24 - Dreptul la aparare

Articolul 25 - Libera circulatie

Articolul 26 - Viata intima, familiala si privata

Articolul 27 - Inviolabilitatea domiciliului

Articolul 28 - Secretul corespondentei

Articolul 29 - Libertatea constiintei

Articolul 30 - Libertatea de exprimare

Articolul 31 - Dreptul la informatie

Articolul 32 - Dreptul la invatatura

Articolul 33 - Dreptul la ocrotirea sanatatii

Articolul 34 - Dreptul de vot

Articolul 35 - Dreptul de a fi ales

Articolul 36 - Libertatea intrunirilor

Articolul 37 - Dreptul de asociere

Articolul 38 - Munca si protectia sociala a muncii

Articolul 39 - Interzicerea muncii fortate

Articolul 40 - Dreptul la greva

Articolul 41 - Protectia proprietatii private

Articolul 42 - Dreptul la mostenire

Articolul 43 - Nivelul de trai

Articolul 44 - Familia

Articolul 45 - Protectia copiilor si a tinerilor

Articolul 46 - Protectia persoanelor handicapate

Articolul 47 - Dreptul de petitionare

Articolul 48 - Dreptul persoanei vatamate de o autoritate publica

Articolul 49 - Restrangerea exercitiului unor drepturi sau al unor libertati

 

Capitolul III - Indatoririle fundamentale

Articolul 50 - Fidelitatea fata de tara

Articolul 51 - Respectarea Constitutiei si a legilor

Articolul 52 - Apararea tarii

Articolul 53 - Contributii financiare

Articolul 54 - Exercitarea drepturilor si a libertatilor

 

Capitolul IV - Avocatul Poporului

Articolul 55 - Numirea si rolul

Articolul 56 - Exercitarea atributiilor

Articolul 57 - Raportul in fata Parlamentului

 

Titlul III - Autoritatile publice

Capitolul I - Parlamentul

Sectiunea 1 - Organizare si functionare

Articolul 58 - Rolul si structura

Articolul 59 - Alegerea Camerelor

Articolul 60 - Durata mandatului

Articolul 61 - Organizarea interna

Articolul 62 - Sedinte comune

Articolul 63 - Sesiuni

Articolul 64 - Actele juridice si cvorumul legal

Articolul 65 - Caracterul public al sedintelor

 

Sectiunea a 2-a - Statutul deputatilor si al senatorilor

Articolul 66 - Mandatul reprezentativ

Articolul 67 - Mandatul deputatilor si al senatorilor

Articolul 68 - Incompatibilitati

Articolul 69 - Imunitatea parlamentara

Articolul 70 - Independenta opiniilor

Articolul 71 - Indemnizatia si celelalte drepturi

 

Sectiunea a 3-a - Legiferarea

Articolul 72 - Categorii de legi

Articolul 73 - Initiativa legislativa

Articolul 74 - Adoptarea legilor si a hotararilor

Articolul 75 - Trimiterea proiectelor de legi si a propunerilor legislative de la o Camera la alta

Articolul 76 - Medierea

Articolul 77 - Promulgarea legii

Articolul 78 - Intrarea in vigoare a legii

Articolul 79 - Consiliul Legislativ

 

Capitolul II - Presedintele Romaniei

Articolul 80 - Rolul Presedintelui

Articolul 81 - Alegerea Presedintelui

Articolul 82 - Validarea mandatului si depunerea juramantului

Articolul 83 - Durata mandatului

Articolul 84 - Incompatibilitati si imunitati

Articolul 85 - Numirea Guvernului

Articolul 86 - Consultarea Guvernului

Articolul 87 - Participarea la sedintele Guvernului

Articolul 88 - Mesaje

Articolul 89 - Dizolvarea Parlamentului

Articolul 90 - Referendumul

Articolul 91 - Atributii in domeniul politicii externe

Articolul 92 - Atributii in domeniul apararii

Articolul 93 - Masuri exceptionale

Articolul 94 - Alte atributii

Articolul 95 - Suspendarea din functie

Articolul 96 - Vacanta functiei

Articolul 97 - Interimatul functiei

Articolul 98 - Raspunderea presedintelui interimar

Articolul 99 - Actele Presedintelui

Articolul 100 - Indemnizatia si celelalte drepturi

 

Capitolul III - Guvernul

Articolul 101 - Rolul si structura

Articolul 102 - Investitura

Articolul 103 - Juramantul de credinta

Articolul 104 - Incompatibilitati

Articolul 105 - Incetarea functiei de membru al Guvernului

Articolul 106 - Primul-ministru

Articolul 107 - Actele Guvernului

Articolul 108 - Raspunderea membrilor Guvernului

Articolul 109 - Incetarea mandatului

 

Capitolul IV - Raporturile Parlamentului cu Guvernul

Articolul 110 - Informarea Parlamentului

Articolul 111 - Intrebari si interpelari

Articolul 112 - Motiunea de cenzura

Articolul 113 - Angajarea raspunderii Guvernului

Articolul 114 - Delegarea legislativa

 

Capitolul V - Administratia publica

Sectiunea 1 - Administratia publica centrala de specialitate

Articolul 115 - Structura

Articolul 116 - Infiintarea

Articolul 117 - Fortele armate

Articolul 118 - Consiliul Suprem de Aparare a Tarii

 

Sectiunea a 2-a - Administratia publica locala

Articolul 119 - Principii de baza

Articolul 120 - Autoritati comunale si orasenesti

Articolul 121 - Consiliul judetean

Articolul 122 - Prefectul

 

Capitolul VI - Autoritatea judecatoreasca

Sectiunea 1 - Instantele judecatoresti

Articolul 123 - Infaptuirea justitiei

Articolul 124 - Statutul judecatorilor

Articolul 125 - Instantele judecatoresti

Articolul 126 - Caracterul public al dezbaterilor

Articolul 127 - Dreptul la interpret

Articolul 128 - Folosirea cailor de atac

Articolul 129 - Politia instantelor

 

Sectiunea a 2-a - Ministerul Public

Articolul 130 - Rolul Ministerului Public

Articolul 131 - Statutul procurorilor

 

Sectiunea a 3-a - Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii

Articolul 132 - Componenta

Articolul 133 - Atributii

 

Titlul IV - Economia si finantele publice

Articolul 134 - Economia

Articolul 135 - Proprietatea

Articolul 136 - Sistemul financiar

Articolul 137 - Bugetul public national

Articolul 138 - Impozite, taxe

Articolul 139 - Curtea de Conturi

 

Titlul V - Curtea Constitutionala

Articolul 140 - Structura

Articolul 141 - Conditii pentru numire

Articolul 142 - Incompatibilitati

Articolul 143 - Independenta si inamovibilitatea

Articolul 144 - Atributii

Articolul 145 - Deciziile Curtii Constitutionale

 

Titlul VI - Revizuirea Constitutiei

Articolul 146 - Initiativa revizuirii

Articolul 147 - Procedura de revizuire

Articolul 148 - Limitele revizuirii

 

Titlul VII - Dispozitii finale si tranzitorii

Articolul 149 - Intrarea in vigoare

Articolul 150 - Conflictul temporar de legi

Articolul 151 - Institutiile existente

Articolul 152 - Institutiile viitoare

 

 

Titlul I

Principii generale

 

Articolul 1

Statul roman

(1) Romania este stat national, suveran si independent, unitar si indivizibil.

(2) Forma de guvernamant a statului roman este republica.

(3) Romania este stat de drept, democratic si social, in care demnitatea omului, drepturile si libertatile cetatenilor, libera dezvoltare a personalitatii umane, dreptatea si pluralismul politic reprezinta valori supreme si sunt garantate.

 

Articolul 2

Suveranitatea

(1) Suveranitatea nationala apartine poporului roman, care o exercita prin organele sale reprezentative si prin referendum.

(2) Nici un grup si nici o persoana nu pot exercita suveranitatea in nume propriu.

 

Articolul 3

Teritoriul

(1) Teritoriul Romaniei este inalienabil.

(2) Frontierele tarii sunt consfintite prin lege organica, cu respectarea principiilor si a celorlalte norme general admise ale dreptului international.

(3) Teritoriul este organizat, sub aspect administrativ, in comune, orase si judete. In conditiile legii, unele orase sunt declarate municipii.

(4) Pe teritoriul statului roman nu pot fi stramutate sau colonizate populatii straine.

 

Articolul 4

Unitatea poporului si egalitatea intre cetateni

(1) Statul are ca fundament unitatea poporului roman.

(2) Romania este patria comuna si indivizibila a tuturor cetatenilor sai, fara deosebire de rasa, de nationalitate, de origine etnica, de limba, de religie, de sex, de opinie, de apartenenta politica, de avere sau de origine sociala.

 

Articolul 5

Cetatenia

(1) Cetatenia romana se dobandeste, se pastreaza sau se pierde in conditiile prevazute de legea organica.

(2) Cetatenia romana nu poate fi retrasa aceluia care a dobandit-o prin nastere.

 

Articolul 6

Dreptul la identitate

(1) Statul recunoaste si garanteaza persoanelor apartinand minoritatilor nationale dreptul la pastrarea, la dezvoltarea si la exprimarea identitatii lor etnice, culturale, lingvistice si religioase.

(2) Masurile de protectie luate de stat pentru pastrarea, dezvoltarea si exprimarea identitatii persoanelor apartinand minoritatilor nationale trebuie sa fie conforme cu principiile de egalitate si de nediscriminare in raport cu ceilalti cetateni romani.

 

Articolul 7

Romanii din strainatate

Statul sprijina intarirea legaturilor cu romanii din afara frontierelor tarii si actioneaza pentru pastrarea, dezvoltarea si exprimarea identitatii lor etnice, culturale, lingvistice si religioase, cu respectarea legislatiei statului ai carui cetateni sunt.

 

Articolul 8

Pluralismul si partidele politice

(1) Pluralismul in societatea romaneasca este o conditie si o garantie a democratiei constitutionale.

(2) Partidele politice se constituie si isi desfasoara activitatea in conditiile legii. Ele contribuie la definirea si la exprimarea vointei politice a cetatenilor, respectand suveranitatea nationala, integritatea teritoriala, ordinea de drept si principiile democratiei.

 

Articolul 9

Sindicatele

Sindicatele se constituie si isi desfasoara activitatea potrivit cu statutele lor, in conditiile legii. Ele contribuie la apararea drepturilor si la promovarea intereselor profesionale, economice si sociale ale salariatilor.

 

Articolul 10

Relatiile internationale

Romania intretine si dezvolta relatii pasnice cu toate statele si, in acest cadru, relatii de buna vecinatate, intemeiate pe principiile si pe celelalte norme general admise ale dreptului international.

 

Articolul 11

Dreptul international si dreptul intern

(1) Statul roman se obliga sa indeplineasca intocmai si cu buna-credinta obligatiile ce-i revin din tratatele la care este parte.

(2) Tratatele ratificate de Parlament, potrivit legii, fac parte din dreptul intern.

 

Articolul 12

Simboluri nationale

(1) Drapelul Romaniei este tricolor; culorile sunt asezate vertical, in ordinea urmatoare incepand de la lance: albastru, galben, rosu.

(2) Ziua nationala a Romaniei este 1 Decembrie.

(3) Imnul national al Romaniei este "Desteapta-te romane".

(4) Stema tarii si sigiliul statului sunt stabilite prin legi organice.

 

Articolul 13

Limba oficiala

In Romania, limba oficiala este limba romana.

 

Articolul 14

Capitala

Capitala Romaniei este municipiul Bucuresti.

 

Titlul II

Drepturile, libertatile si indatoririle fundamentale

 

Capitolul I

Dispozitii comune

 

Articolul 15

Universalitatea

(1) Cetatenii beneficiaza de drepturile si de libertatile consacrate prin Constitutie si prin alte legi si au obligatiile prevazute de acestea.

(2) Legea dispune numai pentru viitor, cu exceptia legii penale mai favorabile.

Articolul 16

Egalitatea in drepturi

(1) Cetatenii sunt egali in fata legii si a autoritatilor publice, fara privilegii si fara discriminari.

(2) Nimeni nu este mai presus de lege.

(3) Functiile si demnitatile publice, civile sau militare, pot fi ocupate de persoanele care au numai cetatenia romana si domiciliul in tara.

 

Articolul 17

Cetatenii romani in strainatate

Cetatenii romani se bucura in strainatate de protectia statului roman si trebuie sa-si indeplineasca obligatiile, cu exceptia acelora ce nu sunt compatibile cu absenta lor din tara.

 

Articolul 18

Cetatenii straini si apatrizii

(1) Cetatenii straini si apatrizii care locuiesc in Romania se bucura de protectia generala a persoanelor si a averilor, garantata de Constitutie si de alte legi.

(2) Dreptul de azil se acorda si se retrage in conditiile legii, cu respectarea tratatelor si a conventiilor internationale la care Romania este parte.

 

Articolul 19

Extradarea si expulzarea

(1) Cetateanul roman nu poate fi extradat sau expulzat din Romania.

(2) Cetatenii straini si apatrizii pot fi extradati numai in baza unei conventii internationale sau in conditii de reciprocitate.

(3) Expulzarea sau extradarea se hotaraste de justitie.

 

Articolul 20

Tratatele internationale privind drepturile omului

(1) Dispozitiile constitutionale privind drepturile si libertatile cetatenilor vor fi interpretate si aplicate in concordanta cu Declaratia Universala a Drepturilor Omului, cu pactele si cu celelalte tratate la care Romania este parte.

(2) Daca exista neconcordante intre pactele si tratatele privitoare la drepturile fundamentale ale omului, la care Romania este parte, si legile interne, au prioritate reglementarile internationale.

 

Articolul 21

Accesul liber la justitie

(1) Orice persoana se poate adresa justitiei pentru apararea drepturilor, a libertatilor si a intereselor sale legitime.

(2) Nici o lege nu poate ingradi exercitarea acestui drept.

 

 

Capitolul II

Drepturile si libertatile fundamentale

 

Articolul 22

Dreptul la viata si la integritate fizica si psihica

(1) Dreptul la viata, precum si dreptul la integritate fizica si psihica ale persoanei sunt garantate.

(2) Nimeni nu poate fi supus torturii si nici unui fel de pedeapsa sau de tratament inuman ori degradant.

(3) Pedeapsa cu moartea este interzisa.

 

Articolul 23

Libertatea individuala

(1) Libertatea individuala si siguranta persoanei sunt inviolabile.

(2) Perchezitionarea, retinerea sau arestarea unei persoane sunt permise numai in cazurile si cu procedura prevazute de lege.

(3) Retinerea nu poate depasi 24 de ore.

(4) Arestarea se face in temeiul unui mandat emis de magistrat, pentru o durata de cel mult 30 de zile. Asupra legalitatii mandatului, arestatul se poate plange judecatorului, care este obligat sa se pronunte prin hotarare motivata. Prelungirea arestarii se aproba numai de instanta de judecata.

(5) Celui retinut sau arestat i se aduc de indata la cunostinta, in limba pe care o intelege, motivele retinerii sau ale arestarii, iar invinuirea, in cel mai scurt termen; invinuirea se aduce la cunostinta numai in prezenta unui avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu.

(6) Eliberarea celui retinut sau arestat este obligatorie, daca motivele acestor masuri au disparut.

(7) Persoana arestata preventiv are dreptul sa ceara punerea sa in libertate provizorie, sub control judiciar sau pe cautiune.

(8) Pana la ramanerea definitiva a hotararii judecatoresti de condamnare, persoana este considerata nevinovata.

(9) Nici o pedeapsa nu poate fi stabilita sau aplicata decat in conditiile si in temeiul legii.

 

Articolul 24

Dreptul la aparare

(1) Dreptul la aparare este garantat.

(2) In tot cursul procesului, partile au dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu.

 

Articolul 25

Libera circulatie

(1) Dreptul la libera circulatie, in tara si in strainatate, este garantat. Legea stabileste conditiile exercitarii acestui drept.

(2) Fiecarui cetatean ii este asigurat dreptul de a-si stabili domiciliul sau resedinta in orice localitale din tara, de a emigra, precum si de a reveni in tara.

 

Articolul 26

Viata intima, familiala si privata

(1) Autoritatile publice respecta si ocrotesc viata intima, familiala si privata.

(2) Persoana fizica are dreptul sa dispuna de ea insasi, daca nu incalca drepturile si libertatile altora, ordinea publica sau bunele moravuri.

 

Articolul 27

Inviolabilitatea domiciliului

(1) Domiciliul si resedinta sunt inviolabile. Nimeni nu poate patrunde sau ramane in domiciliul ori in resedinta unei persoane fara invoirea acesteia.

(2) De la prevederile alineatului (1) se poate deroga prin lege in urmatoarele situatii:

a) pentru executarea unui mandat de arestare sau a unei hotarari judecatoresti;

b) pentru inlaturarea unei primejdii privind viata, integritatea fizica sau bunurile unei persoane;

c) pentru apararea sigurantei nationale sau a ordinii publice;

d) pentru prevenirea raspandirii unei epidemii.

(3) Perchezitiile pot fi ordonate exclusiv de magistrat si pot fi efectuate numai in formele prevazute de lege.

(4) Perchezitiile in timpul noptii sunt interzise, afara de cazul delictului flagrant.

 

Articolul 28

Secretul corespondentei

Secretul scrisorilor, al telegramelor, al altor trimiteri postale, al convorbirilor telefonice si al celorlalte mijloace legale de comunicare este inviolabil.

 

Articolul 29

Libertatea constiintei

(1) Libertatea gandirii si a opiniilor, precum si libertatea credintelor religioase nu pot fi ingradite sub nici o forma. Nimeni nu poate fi constrans sa adopte o opinie ori sa adere la o credinta religioasa, contrare convingerilor sale.

(2) Libertatea constiintei este garantata; ea trebuie sa se manifeste in spirit de toleranta si de respect reciproc.

(3) Cultele religioase sunt libere si se organizeaza potrivit statutelor proprii, in conditiile legii.

(4) In relatiile dintre culte sunt interzise orice forme, mijloace, acte sau actiuni de invrajbire religioasa.

(5) Cultele religioase sunt autonome fata de stat si se bucura de sprijinul acestuia, inclusiv prin inlesnirea asistentei religioase in armata, in spitale, in penitenciare, in azile si in orfelinate.

(6) Parintii sau tutorii au dreptul de a asigura, potrivit propriilor convingeri, educatia copiilor minori a caror raspundere le revine.

 

Articolul 30

Libertatea de exprimare

(1) Libertatea de exprimare a gandurilor, a opiniilor sau a credintelor si libertatea creatiilor de orice fel, prin viu grai, prin scris, prin imagini, prin sunete sau prin alte mijloace de comunicare in public, sunt inviolabile.

(2) Cenzura de orice fel este interzisa.

(3) Libertatea presei implica si libertatea de a infiinta publicatii.

(4) Nici o publicatie nu poate fi suprimata.

(5) Legea poate impune mijloacelor de comunicare in masa obligatia de a face publica sursa finantarii.

(6) Libertatea de exprimare nu poate prejudicia demnitatea, onoarea, viata particulara a persoanei si nici dreptul la propria imagine.

(7) Sunt interzise de lege defaimarea tarii si a natiunii, indemnul la razboi de agresiune, la ura nationala, rasiala, de clasa sau religioasa, incitarea la discriminare, la separatism teritorial sau la violenta publica, precum si manifestarile obscene, contrare bunelor moravuri.

(8) Raspunderea civila pentru informatia sau pentru creatia adusa la cunostinta publica revine editorului sau realizatorului, autorului, organizatorului manifestarii artistice, proprietarului mijlocului de multiplicare, al postului de radio sau de televiziune, in conditiile legii. Delictele de presa se stabilesc prin lege.

 

Articolul 31

Dreptul la informatie

(1) Dreptul persoanei de a avea acces la orice informatie de interes public nu poate fi ingradit.

(2) Autoritatile publice, potrivit competentelor ce le revin, sunt obligate sa asigure informarea corecta a cetatenilor asupra treburilor publice si asupra problemelor de interes personal.

(3) Dreptul la informatie nu trebuie sa prejudicieze masurile de protectie a tinerilor sau siguranta nationala.

(4) Mijloacele de informare in masa, publice si private, sunt obligate sa asigure informarea corecta a opiniei publice.

(5) Serviciile publice de radio si de televiziune sunt autonome. Ele trebuie sa garanteze grupurilor sociale si politice importante exercitarea dreptului la antena. Organizarea acestor servicii si controlul parlamentar asupra activitatii lor se reglementeaza prin lege organica.

 

Articolul 32

Dreptul la invatatura

(1) Dreptul la invatatura este asigurat prin invatamantul general obligatoriu, prin invatamantul liceal si prin cel profesional, prin invatamantul superior, precum si prin alte forme de instructie si de perfectionare.

(2) Invatamantul de toate gradele se desfasoara in limba romana. In conditiile legii, invatamantul se poate desfasura si intr-o limba de circulatie internationala.

(3) Dreptul persoanelor apartinand minoritatilor nationale de a invata limba lor materna si dreptul de a putea fi instruite in aceasta limba sunt garantate; modalitatile de exercitare a acestor drepturi se stabilesc prin lege.

(4) Invatamantul de stat este gratuit, potrivit legii.

(5) Institutiile de invatamant, inclusiv cele particulare, se infiinteaza si isi desfasoara activitatea in conditiile legii.

(6) Autonomia universitara este garantata.

(7) Statul asigura libertatea invatamantului religios, potrivit cerintelor specifice fiecarui cult. In scolile de stat, invatamantul religios este organizat si garantat prin lege.

 

Articolul 33

Dreptul la ocrotirea sanatatii

(1) Dreptul la ocrotirea sanatatii este garantat.

(2) Statul este obligat sa ia masuri pentru asigurarea igienei si a sanatatii publice.

(3) Organizarea asistentei medicale si a sistemului de asigurari sociale pentru boala, accidente, maternitate si recuperare, controlul exercitarii profesiilor medicale si a activitatilor paramedicale, precum si alte masuri de protectie a sanatatii fizice si mentale a persoanei se stabilesc potrivit legii.

 

Articolul 34

Dreptul de vot

(1) Cetatenii au drept de vot de la varsta de 18 ani, impliniti pana in ziua alegerilor inclusiv.

(2) Nu au drept de vot debilii sau alienatii mintal, pusi sub interdictie, si nici persoanele condamnate, prin hotarare judecatoreasca definitiva, la pierderea drepturilor electorale.

 

Articolul 35

Dreptul de a fi ales

(1) Au dreptul de a fi alesi cetatenii cu drept de vot care indeplinesc conditiile prevazute in articolul 16 alineatul (3), daca nu le este interzisa asocierea in partide politice, potrivit articolului 37 alineatul (3).

(2) Candidatii trebuie sa fi implinit, pana in ziua alegerilor inclusiv, varsta de cel putin 23 de ani, pentru a fi alesi in Camera Deputatilor sau in organele locale, si varsta de cel putin 35 de ani, pentru a fi alesi in Senat sau in functia de Presedinte al Romaniei.

 

Articolul 36

Libertatea intrunirilor

Mitingurile, demonstratiile, procesiunile sau orice alte intruniri sunt libere si se pot organiza si desfasura numai in mod pasnic, fara nici un fel de arme.

 

Articolul 37

Dreptul de asociere

(1) Cetatenii se pot asocia liber in partide politice, in sindicate si in alte forme de asociere.

(2) Partidele sau organizatiile care, prin scopurile ori prin activitatea lor, militeaza impotriva pluralismului politic, a principiilor statului de drept ori a suveranitatii, a integritatii sau a independentei Romaniei sunt neconstitutionale.

(3) Nu pot face parte din partide politice judecatorii Curtii Constitutionale, avocatii poporului, magistratii, membrii activi ai armatei, politistii si alte categorii de functionari publici stabilite prin lege organica.

(4) Asociatiile cu caracter secret sunt interzise.

 

Articolul 38

Munca si protectia sociala a muncii

(1) Dreptul la munca nu poate fi ingradit. Alegerea profesiei si alegerea locului de munca sunt libere.

(2) Salariatii au dreptul la protectia sociala a muncii. Masurile de protectie privesc securitatea si igiena muncii, regimul de munca al femeilor si al tinerilor, instituirea unui salariu minim pe economie, repaosul saptamanal, concediul de odihna platit, prestarea muncii in conditii grele, precum si alte situatii specifice.

(3) Durata normala a zilei de lucru este, in medie, de cel mult 8 ore.

(4) La munca egala, femeile au salariu egal cu barbatii.

(5) Dreptul la negocieri colective in materie de munca si caracterul obligatoriu al conventiilor colective sunt garantate.

 

Articolul 39

Interzicerea muncii fortate

(1) Munca fortata este interzisa.

(2) Nu constituie munca fortata:

a) serviciul cu caracter militar sau activitatile desfasurate in locul acestuia de cei care, potrivit legii, nu presteaza serviciul militar obligatoriu din motive religioase;

b) munca unei persoane condamnate, prestata in conditii normale, in perioada de detentie sau de libertate conditionata;

c) prestatiile impuse in situatia creata de calamitati ori de alt pericol, precum si cele care fac parte din obligatiile civile normale stabilite de lege.

 

Articolul 40

Dreptul la greva

(1) Salariatii au dreptul la greva pentru apararea intereselor profesionale, economice si sociale.

(2) Legea stabileste conditiile si limitele exercitarii acestui drept, precum si garantiile necesare asigurarii serviciilor esentiale pentru societate.

 

Articolul 41

Protectia proprietatii private

(1) Dreptul de proprietate, precum si creantele asupra statului, sunt garantate. Continutul si limitele acestor drepturi sunt stabilite de lege.

(2) Proprietatea privata este ocrotita in mod egal de lege, indiferent de titular. Cetatenii straini si apatrizii nu pot dobandi dreptul de proprietate asupra terenurilor.

(3) Nimeni nu poate fi expropriat decat pentru o cauza de utilitate publica, stabilita potrivit legii, cu dreapta si prealabila despagubire.

(4) Pentru lucrari de interes general, autoritatea publica poate folosi subsolul oricarei proprietati imobiliare, cu obligatia de a despagubi proprietarul pentru daunele aduse solului, plantatiilor sau constructiilor, precum si pentru alte daune imputabile autoritatii.

(5) Despagubirile prevazute in alineatele (3) si (4) se stabilesc de comun acord cu proprietarul sau, in caz de divergenta, prin justitie.

(6) Dreptul de proprietate obliga la respectarea sarcinilor privind protectia mediului si asigurarea bunei vecinatati, precum si la respectarea celorlalte sarcini care, potrivit legii sau obiceiului, revin proprietarului.

(7) Averea dobandita licit nu poate fi confiscata. Caracterul licit al dobandirii se prezuma.

(8) Bunurile destinate, folosite sau rezultate din infractiuni ori contraventii pot fi confiscate numai in conditiile legii.

 

Articolul 42

Dreptul la mostenire

Dreptul la mostenire este garantat.

 

Articolul 43

Nivelul de trai

(1) Statul este obligat sa ia masuri de dezvoltare economica si de protectie sociala, de natura sa asigure cetatenilor un nivel de trai decent.

(2) Cetatenii au dreptul la pensie, la concediu de maternitate platit, la asistenta medicala in unitatile sanitare de stat, la ajutor de somaj si la alte forme de asistenta sociala prevazute de lege.

 

Articolul 44

Familia

(1) Familia se intemeiaza pe casatoria liber consimtita intre soti, pe egalitatea acestora si pe dreptul si indatorirea parintilor de a asigura cresterea, educatia si instruirea copiilor.

(2) Conditiile de incheiere, de desfacere si de nulitate a casatoriei se stabilesc prin lege. Casatoria religioasa poate fi celebrata numai dupa casatoria civila.

(3) Copiii din afara casatoriei sunt egali in fata legii cu cei din casatorie.

 

Articolul 45

Protectia copiilor si a tinerilor

(1) Copiii si tinerii se bucura de un regim special de protectie si de asistenta in realizarea drepturilor lor.

(2) Statul acorda alocatii de stat pentru copii si ajutoare pentru ingrijirea copilului bolnav ori handicapat. Alte forme de protectie sociala a copiilor si a tinerilor se stabilesc prin lege.

(3) Exploatarea minorilor, folosirea lor in activitati care le-ar dauna sanatatii, moralitatii sau care le-ar pune in primejdie viata ori dezvoltarea normala sunt interzise.

(4) Minorii sub varsta de 15 ani nu pot fi angajati ca salariati.

(5) Autoritatile publice au obligatia sa contribuie la asigurarea conditiilor pentru participarea libera a tinerilor la viata politica, sociala, economica, culturala si sportiva a tarii.

 

Articolul 46

Protectia persoanelor handicapate

Persoanele handicapate se bucura de protectie speciala. Statul asigura realizarea unei politici nationale de prevenire, de tratament, de readaptare, de invatamant, de instruire si de integrare sociala a handicapatilor, respectand drepturile si indatoririle ce revin parintilor si tutorilor.

 

Articolul 47

Dreptul de petitionare

(1) Cetatenii au dreptul sa se adreseze autoritatilor publice prin petitii formulate numai in numele semnatarilor.

(2) Organizatiile legal constituite au dreptul sa adreseze petitii exclusiv in numele colectivelor pe care le reprezinta.

(3) Exercitarea dreptului de petitionare este scutita de taxa.

(4) Autoritatile publice au obligatia sa raspunda la petitii in termenele si in conditiile stabilite potrivit legii.

 

Articolul 48

Dreptul persoanei vatamate de o autoritate publica

(1) Persoana vatamata intr-un drept al sau de o autoritate publica, printr-un act administrativ sau prin nesolutionarea in termenul legal a unei cereri, este indreptatita sa obtina recunoasterea dreptului pretins, anularea actului si repararea pagubei.

(2) Conditiile si limitele exercitarii acestui drept se stabilesc prin lege organica.

(3) Statul raspunde patrimonial, potrivit legii, pentru prejudiciile cauzate prin erorile judiciare savarsite in procesele penale.

 

Articolul 49

Restrangerea exercitiului unor drepturi sau al unor libertati

(1) Exercitiul unor drepturi sau al unor libertati poate fi restrans numai prin lege si numai daca se impune, dupa caz, pentru: apararea sigurantei nationale, a ordinii, a sanatatii ori a moralei publice, a drepturilor si a libertatilor cetatenilor; desfasurarea instructiei penale; prevenirea consecintelor unei calamitati naturale ori ale unui sinistru deosebit de grav.

(2) Restrangerea trebuie sa fie proportionala cu situatia care a determinat-o si nu poate atinge existenta dreptului sau a libertatii.

 

Capitolul III

Indatoririle fundamentale

 

Articolul 50

Fidelitatea fata de tara

(1) Fidelitatea fata de tara este sacra.

(2) Cetatenii carora le sunt incredintate functii publice, precum si militarii, raspund de indeplinirea cu credinta a obligatiilor ce le revin si, in acest scop, vor depune juramantul cerut de lege.

 

Articolul 51

Respectarea Constitutiei si a legilor

Respectarea Constitutiei, a suprematiei sale si a legilor este obligatorie.

 

Articolul 52

Apararea tarii

(1) Cetatenii au dreptul si obligatia sa apere Romania.

(2) Serviciul militar este obligatoriu pentru barbatii, cetateni romani, care au implinit varsta de 20 de ani, cu exceptia cazurilor prevazute de lege.

(3) Pentru pregatirea in cadrul serviciului militar activ, cetatenii pot fi incorporati pana la varsta de 35 de ani.

 

Articolul 53

Contributii financiare

(1) Cetatenii au obligatia sa contribuie, prin impozite si prin taxe, la cheltuielile publice.

(2) Sistemul legal de impuneri trebuie sa asigure asezarea justa a sarcinilor fiscale.

(3) Orice alte prestatii sunt interzise, in afara celor stabilite prin lege, in situatii exceptionale.

 

Articolul 54

Exercitarea drepturilor si a libertatilor

Cetatenii romani, cetatenii straini si apatrizii trebuie sa-si exercite drepturile si libertatile constitutionale cu buna-credinta, fara sa incalce drepturile si libertatile celorlalti.

 

 

Capitolul IV

Avocatul Poporului

 

Articolul 55

Numirea si rolul

(1) Avocatul Poporului este numit de Senat, pe o durata de 4 ani, pentru apararea drepturilor si a libertatilor cetatenilor. Organizarea si functionarea institutiei Avocatului Poporului se stabilesc prin lege organica.

(2) Avocatul Poporului nu poate indeplini nici o alta functie publica sau privata.

 

Articolul 56

Exercitarea atributiilor

(1) Avocatul Poporului isi exercita atributiile din oficiu sau la cererea persoanelor lezate in drepturile si in libertatile lor, in limitele stabilite de lege.

(2) Autoritatile publice sunt obligate sa asigure Avocatului Poporului sprijinul necesar in exercitarea atributiilor sale.

 

Articolul 57

Raportul in fata Parlamentului

Avocatul Poporului prezinta celor doua Camere ale Parlamentului rapoarte, anual sau la cererea acestora. Rapoartele pot contine recomadari privind legislatia sau masuri de alta natura, pentru ocrotirea drepturilor si a libertatilor cetatenilor.

 

 

Titlul III

Autoritatile publice

 

Capitolul I

Parlamentul

 

Sectiunea 1

Organizare si functionare

 

Articolul 58

Rolul si structura

(1) Parlamentul este organul reprezentativ suprem al poporului roman si unica autoritate legiuitoare a tarii.

(2) Parlamentul este alcatuit din Camera Deputatilor si Senat.

 

Articolul 59

Alegerea Camerelor

(1) Camera Deputatilor si Senatul sunt alese prin vot universal, egal, direct, secret si liber exprimat, potrivit legii electorale.

(2) Organizatiile cetatenilor apartinand minoritatilor nationale, care nu intrunesc in alegeri numarul de voturi pentru a fi reprezentate in Parlament, au dreptul la cate un loc de deputat, in conditiile legii electorale. Cetatenii unei minoritati nationale pot fi reprezentati numai de o singura organizatie.

(3) Numarul deputatilor si al senatorilor se stabileste prin legea electorala, in raport cu populatia tarii.

 

Articolul 60

Durata mandatului

(1) Camera Deputatilor si Senatul sunt alese pentru un mandat de 4 ani, care poate fi prelungit, prin lege organica, in caz de razboi sau de catastrofa.

(2) Alegerile pentru Camera Deputatilor si pentru Senat se desfasoara in cel mult 3 luni de la expirarea mandatului sau de la dizolvarea Parlamentului.

(3) Parlamentul nou ales se intruneste, la convocarea Presedintelui Romaniei, in cel mult 20 de zile de la alegeri.

(4) Mandatul Camerelor se prelungeste pana la intrunirea legala a noului Parlament. In aceasta perioada nu poate fi revizuita Constitutia si nu pot fi adoptate, modificate sau abrogate legi organice.

(5) Proiectele de legi sau propunerile legislative inscrise pe ordinea de zi a Parlamentului precedent isi continua procedura in noul Parlament.

 

Articolul 61

Organizarea interna

(1) Organizarea si functionarea fiecarei Camere se stabilesc prin regulament propriu. Resursele financiare ale Camerelor sunt prevazute in bugetele aprobate de acestea.

(2) Fiecare Camera isi alege un birou permanent. Presedintele Camerei Deputatilor si presedintele Senatului se aleg pe durata mandatului Camerelor. Ceilalti membri ai birourilor permanente sunt alesi la inceputul fiecarei sesiuni. Membrii birourilor permanente pot fi revocati inainte de expirarea mandatului.

(3) Deputatii si senatorii se pot organiza in grupuri parlamentare, potrivit regulamentului fiecarei Camere.

(4) Fiecare Camera isi constituie comisii permanente si poate institui comisii de ancheta sau alte comisii speciale. Camerele isi pot constitui comisii comune.

(5) Birourile permanente si comisiile parlamentare se alcatuiesc potrivit configuratiei politice a fiecarei Camere.

 

Articolul 62

Sedinte comune

(1) Camera Deputatilor si Senatul lucreaza in sedinte separate si in sedinte comune. In sedintele comune, lucrarile se desfasoara potrivit unui regulament adoptat cu votul majoritatii deputatilor si senatorilor.

(2) Camerele se intrunesc in sedinta comuna pentru:

a) primirea mesajului Presedintelui Romaniei;

b) aprobarea bugetului de stat si a bugetului asigurarilor sociale de stat;

c) declararea mobilizarii generale sau partiale;

d) declararea starii de razboi;

e) suspendarea sau incetarea ostilitatilor militare;

f) examinarea rapoartelor Consiliului Suprem de Aparare a tarii si ale Curtii de Conturi;

g) numirea, la propunerea Presedintelui Romaniei, a directorului Serviciului Roman de Informatii si exercitarea controlului asupra activitatii acestui serviciu;

h) indeplinirea altor atributii care, potrivit Constitutiei sau regulamentului, se exercita in sedinta comuna.

 

Articolul 63

Sesiuni

(1) Camera Deputatilor si Senatul se intrunesc in doua sesiuni ordinare pe an. Prima sesiune incepe in luna februarie si nu poate depasi sfarsitul lunii iunie. A doua sesiune incepe in luna septembrie si nu poate depasi sfarsitul lunii decembrie.

(2) Camera Deputatilor si Senatul se intrunesc si in sesiuni extraordinare, la cererea Presedintelui Romaniei, a biroului permanent al fiecarei Camere ori a cel putin o treime din numarul deputatilor sau al senatorilor.

(3) Convocarea Camerelor se face de presedintii acestora.

 

Articolul 64

Actele juridice si cvorumul legal

Camera Deputatilor si Senatul adopta legi, hotarari si motiuni, in prezenta majoritatii membrilor.

 

Articolul 65

Caracterul public al sedintelor

(1) Sedintele celor doua Camere sunt publice.

(2) Camerele pot hotari ca anumite sedinte sa fie secrete.

 

Sectiunea a 2-a

Statutul deputatilor si al senatorilor

 

Articolul 66

Mandatul reprezentativ

(1) In exercitarea mandatului, deputatii si senatorii sunt in serviciul poporului.

(2) Orice mandat imperativ este nul.

 

Articolul 67

Mandatul deputatilor si al senatorilor

(1) Deputatii si senatorii intra in exercitiul mandatului la data intrunirii legale a Camerei din care fac parte, sub conditia validarii.

(2) Calitatea de deputat sau de senator inceteaza la data intrunirii legale a Camerelor nou alese sau in caz de demisie, de pierdere a drepturilor electorale, de incompatibilitate ori de deces.

 

Articolul 68

Incompatibilitati

(1) Nimeni nu poate fi, in acelasi timp, deputat si senator.

(2) Calitatea de deputat sau de senator este incompatibila cu exercitarea oricarei functii publice de autoritate, cu exceptia celei de membru al Guvernului.

(3) Alte incompatibilitati se stabilesc prin lege organica.

 

Articolul 69

Imunitatea parlamentara

(1) Deputatul sau senatorul nu poate fi retinut, arestat, perchezitionat sau trimis in judecata, penala ori contraventionala, fara incuviintarea Camerei din care face parte, dupa ascultarea sa. Competenta de judecata apartine Curtii Supreme de Justitie.

(2) In caz de infractiune flagranta, deputatul sau senatorul poate fi retinut si supus perchezitiei. Ministrul justitiei va informa neintarziat pe presedintele Camerei asupra retinerii si a perchezitiei. In cazul in care Camera sesizata constata ca nu exista temei pentru retinere, va dispune imediat revocarea acestei masuri.

 

Articolul 70

Independenta opiniilor

Deputatii si senatorii nu pot fi trasi la raspundere juridica pentru voturile sau pentru opiniile politice exprimate in exercitarea mandatului.

 

Articolul 71

Indemnizatia si celelalte drepturi

Deputatii si senatorii primesc o indemnizatie lunara. Cuantumul indemnizatiei si celelalte drepturi se stabilesc prin lege.

 

Sectiunea a 3-a

Legiferarea

 

Articolul 72

Categorii de legi

(1) Parlamentul adopta legi constitutionale, legi organice si legi ordinare.

(2) Legile constitutionale sunt cele de revizuire a Constitutiei.

(3) Prin lege organica se reglementeaza:

a) sistemul electoral;

b) organizarea si functionarea partidelor politice;

c) organizarea si desfasurarea referendumului;

d) organizarea Guvernului si a Consiliului Suprem de Aparare a Tarii;

e) regimul starii de asediu si al celei de urgenta;

f) infractiunile, pedepsele si regimul executarii acestora;

g) acordarea amnistiei sau a gratierii colective;

h) organizarea si functionarea Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii, a instantelor judecatoresti, a Ministerului Public si a Curtii de Conturi;

i) statutul functionarilor publici;

j) contenciosul administrativ;

k) regimul juridic general al proprietatii si al mostenirii;

l) regimul general privind raporturile de munca, sindicatele si protectia sociala;

m) organizarea generala a invatamantului;

n) regimul general al cultelor;

o) organizarea administratiei locale, a teritoriului, precum si regimul general privind autonomia locala;

p) modul de stabilire a zonei economice exclusive;

r) celelalte domenii pentru care, in Constitutie, se prevede adoptarea de legi organice.

 

Articolul 73

Initiativa legislativa

(1) Initiativa legislativa apartine Guvernului, deputatilor, senatorilor, precum si unui numar de cel putin 250.000 de cetateni cu drept de vot. Cetatenii care isi manifesta dreptul la initiativa legislativa trebuie sa provina din cel putin un sfert din judetele tarii, iar in fiecare din aceste judete sau in municipiul Bucuresti trebuie sa fie inregistrate cel putin 10.000 de semnaturi in sprijinul acestei initiative.

(2) Nu pot face obiectul initiativei legislative a cetatenilor problemele fiscale, cele cu caracter international, amnistia si gratierea.

(3) Guvernul isi exercita initiativa legislativa prin transmiterea proiectului de lege catre una dintre Camere.

(4) Deputatii, senatorii si cetatenii care exercita dreptul la initiativa legislativa pot prezenta propuneri legislative numai in forma ceruta pentru proiectele de legi.

(5) Propunerile legislative se supun intai adoptarii in Camera in care au fost prezentate.

 

Articolul 74

Adoptarea legilor si a hotararilor

(1) Legile organice si hotararile privind regulamentele Camerelor se adopta cu votul majoritatii membrilor fiecarei Camere.

(2) Legile ordinare si hotararile se adopta cu votul majoritatii membrilor prezenti din fiecare Camera.

(3) La cererea Guvernului sau din proprie initiativa, Parlamentul poate adopta proiecte de legi sau propuneri legislative cu procedura de urgenta, stabilita potrivit regulamentului fiecarei Camere.

 

Articolul 75 Trimiterea proiectelor de legi si a propunerilor legislative de la o Camera la alta

Proiectele de legi sau propunerile legislative adoptate de una din Camere se trimit celeilalte Camere a Parlamentului. Daca aceasta din urma respinge proiectul de lege sau propunerea legislativa, ele se trimit, pentru o noua dezbatere, Camerei care le-a adoptat. O noua respingere este definitiva.

 

Articolul 76

Medierea

(1) Daca una din Camere adopta un proiect de lege sau o propunere legislativa intr-o redactare diferita de cea aprobata de cealalta Camera, presedintii Camerelor vor initia, prin intermediul unei comisii paritare, procedura de mediere.

(2) In cazul in care comisia nu ajunge la un acord sau daca una din Camere nu aproba raportul comisiei de mediere, textele aflate in divergenta se supun dezbaterii Camerei Deputatilor si Senatului, in sedinta comuna, care vor adopta textul definitiv cu votul majoritatii prevazute la articolul 74 alineatele (1) sau (2).

 

Articolul 77

Promulgarea legii

(1) Legea se trimite, spre promulgare, Presedintelui Romaniei. Promulgarea legii se face in termen de cel mult 20 de zile de la primire.

(2) Inainte de promulgare, Presedintele poate cere Parlamentului, o singura data, reexaminarea legii.

(3) Daca Presedintele a cerut reexaminarea legii ori daca s-a cerut verificarea constitutionalitatii ei, promulgarea legii se face in cel mult 10 zile de la primirea legii adoptate dupa reexaminare sau de la primirea deciziei Curtii Constitutionale, prin care i s-a confirmat constitutionalitatea.

 

Articolul 78

Intrarea in vigoare a legii

Legea se publica in Monitorul Oficial Romaniei si intra in vigoare la data publicarii sau la data prevazuta in textul ei.

 

Articolul 79

Consiliul Legislativ

(1) Consiliul Legislativ este organ consultativ de specialitate al Parlamentului care avizeaza proiectele de acte normative in vederea sistematizarii, unifcarii si coordonarii intregii legislatii. El tine evidenta oficiala a legislatiei Romaniei.

(2) Infiintarea, organizarea si functionarea Consiliului Legislativ se stabilesc prin lege organica.

 

Capitolul II

Presedintele Romaniei

 

Articolul 80

Rolul Presedintelui

(1) Presedintele Romaniei reprezinta statul roman si este garantul independentei nationale, al unitatii si al integritatii teritoriale a tarii.

(2) Presedintele Romaniei vegheaza la respectarea Constitutiei si la buna functionare a autoritatilor publice. In acest scop, Presedintele exercita functia de mediere intre puterile statului, precum si intre stat si societate.

 

Articolul 81

Alegerea Presedintelui

(1) Presedintele Romaniei este ales prin vot universal, egal, direct, secret si liber exprimat.

(2) Este declarat ales candidatul care a intrunit, in primul tur de scrutin, majoritatea de voturi ale alegatorilor inscrisi in listele electorale.

(3) In cazul in care nici unul dintre candidati nu a intrunit aceasta majoritate, se organizeaza al doilea tur de scrutin, intre primii doi candidati stabiliti in ordinea numarului de voturi obtinute in primul tur. Este declarat ales candidatul care a obtinut cel mai mare numar de voturi.

(4) Nici o persoana nu poate indeplini functia de Presedinte al Romaniei decat pentru cel mult doua mandate. Acestea pot fi si succesive.

 

Articolul 82

Validarea mandatului si depunerea juramantului

(1) Rezultatul alegerilor pentru functia de Presedinte al Romaniei este validat de Curtea Constitutionala.

(2) Candidatul a carui alegere a fost validata depune in fata Camerei Deputatilor si a Senatului, in sedinta comuna, urmatorul juramant: "Jur sa-mi daruiesc toata puterea si priceperea pentru propasirea spirituala si materiala a poporului roman, sa respect Constitutia si legile tarii, sa apar democratia, drepturile si libertatile fundamentale ale cetatenilor, suveranitatea, independenta, unitatea si integritatea teritoriala a Romaniei. Asa sa-mi ajute Dumnezeu!"

 

Articolul 83

Durata mandatului

(1) Mandatul Presedintelui Romaniei este de 4 ani si se exercita de la data depunerii juramantului.

(2) Presedintele Romaniei isi exercita mandatul pana la depunerea juramantului de Presedintele nou ales.

(3) Mandatul Presedintelui Romaniei poate fi prelungit, prin lege organica, in caz de razboi sau de catastrofa.

 

Articolul 84

Incompatibilitati si imunitati

(1) In timpul mandatului, Presedintele Romaniei nu poate fi membru al unui partid si nu poate indeplini nici o alta functie publica sau privata.

(2) Presedintele Romaniei se bucura de imunitate. Prevederile articolului 70 se aplica in mod corespunzator.

(3) Camera Deputatilor si Senatul, in sedinta comuna, pot hotari punerea sub acuzare a Presedintelui Romaniei pentru inalta tradare, cu votul a cel putin doua treimi din numarul deputatilor si senatorilor. Competenta de judecata apartine Curtii Supreme de Justitie, in conditiile legii. Presedintele este demis de drept la data ramanerii definitive a hotararii de condamnare.

 

Articolul 85

Numirea Guvernului

(1) Presedintele Romaniei desemneaza un candidat pentru functia de prim-ministru si numeste Guvernul pe baza votului de incredere acordat de Parlament.

(2) In caz de remaniere guvernamentala sau de vacanta a postului, Presedintele revoca si numeste, la propunerea primului-ministru, pe unii membri ai Guvernului.

 

Articolul 86

Consultarea Guvernului

Presedintele Romaniei poate consulta Guvernul cu privire la probleme urgente si de importanta deosebita.

 

Articolul 87

Participarea la sedintele Guvernului

(1) Presedintele Romaniei poate lua parte la sedintele Guvernului in care se dezbat probleme de interes national privind politica externa, apararea tarii, asigurarea ordinii publice si, la cererea primului-ministru, in alte situatii.

(2) Presedintele Romaniei prezideaza sedintele Guvernului la care participa.

 

Articolul 88

Mesaje

Presedintele Romaniei adreseaza Parlamentului mesaje cu privire la principalele probleme politice ale natiunii.

 

Articolul 89

Dizolvarea Parlamentului

(1) Dupa consultarea presedintilor celor doua Camere si a liderilor grupurilor parlamentare, Presedintele Romaniei poate sa dizolve Parlamentul, daca acasta nu a acordat votul de incredere pentru formarea Guvernului in termen de 60 de zile de la prima solicitare si numai dupa respingerea a cel putin doua solicitari de investitura.

(2) In cursul unui an, Parlamentul poate fi dizolvat o singura data.

(3) Parlamentul nu poate fi dizolvat in ultimele sase luni ale mandatului Presedintelui Romaniei si nici in timpul starii de asediu sau al starii de urgenta.

 

Articolul 90

Referendumul

Presedintele Romaniei, dupa consultarea Parlamentului, poate cere poporului sa-si exprime, prin referendum, vointa cu privire la probleme de interes national.

 

Articolul 91

Atributii in domeniul politicii externe

(1) Presedintele incheie tratate internationale in numele Romaniei, negociate de Guvern, si le supune spre ratificare Parlamentului, in termen de 60 de zile.

(2) Presedintele, la propunerea Guvernului, acrediteaza si recheama reprezentantii diplomatici ai Romaniei si aproba infiintarea, desfiintarea sau schimbarea rangului misiunilor diplomatice.

(3) Reprezentantii diplomatici ai altor state sunt acreditati pe langa Presedintele Romaniei.

 

Articolul 92

Atributii in domeniul apararii

(1) Presedintele Romaniei este comandantul fortelor armate si indeplineste functia de presedinte al Consiliului Suprem de Aparare a Tarii.

(2) El poate declara, cu aprobarea prealabila a Parlamentului, mobilizarea partiala sau generala a fortelor armate. Numai in cazuri exceptionale, hotararea Presedintelui se supune ulterior aprobarii Parlamentului, in cel mult 5 zile de la adoptare.

(3) In caz de agresiune armata indreptata impotriva tarii, Presedintele Romaniei ia masuri pentru respingerea agresiunii si le aduce neintarziat la cunostinta Parlamentului, printr-un mesaj. Daca Parlamentul nu se afla in sesiune, el se convoaca de drept in 24 de ore de la declansarea agresiunii.

 

Articolul 93

Masuri exceptionale

(1) Presedintele Romaniei instituie, potrivit legii, starea de asediu sau starea de urgenta, in intreaga tara ori in unele localitati, si solicita Parlamentului incuviintarea masurii adoptate, in cel mult 5 zile de la luarea acesteia.

(2) Daca Parlamentul nu se afla in sesiune, el se convoaca de drept in cel mult 48 de ore de la instituirea starii de asediu sau a starii de urgenta si functioneaza pe toata durata acestora.

 

Articolul 94

Alte atributii

Presedintele Romaniei indeplineste si urmatoarele atributii:

a) confera decoratii si titluri de onoare;

b) acorda gradele de maresal, de general, de amiral;

c) numeste in functii publice, in conditiile prevazute de lege;

d) acorda gratierea individuala.

 

Articolul 95

Suspendarea din functie

(1) In cazul savarsirii unor fapte grave prin care incalca prevederile Constitutiei, Presedintele Romaniei poate fi suspendat din functie de Camera Deputatilor si de Senat, in sedinta comuna, cu votul majoritatii deputatilor si senatorilor, dupa consultarea Curtii Constitutionale. Presedintele poate da Parlamentului explicatii cu privire la faptele ce i se imputa.

(2) Propunerea de suspendare din functie poate fi initiata de cel putin o treime din numarul deputatilor si senatorilor si se aduce, neintarziat, la cunostinta Presedintelui.

(3) Daca propunerea de suspendare din functie este aprobata, in cel mult 30 de zile se organizeaza un referendum pentru demiterea Presedintelui.

 

Articolul 96

Vacanta functiei

(1) Vacanta functiei de Presedinte al Romaniei intervine in caz de demisie, de demitere din functie, de imposibilitate definitiva a exercitarii atributiilor sau de deces.

(2) In termen de trei luni de la data la care a intervenit vacanta functiei de Presedinte al Romaniei, Guvernul va organiza alegeri pentru un nou Presedinte.

 

Articolul 97

Interimatul functiei

(1) Daca functia de Presedinte devine vacanta ori daca Presedintele este suspendat din functie sau daca se afla in imposibilitate temporara de a-si exercita atributiile, interimatul se asigura, in ordine, de presedintele Senatului sau de presedintele Camerei Deputatilor.

(2) Atributiile prevazute la articolele 88-90 nu pot fi exercitate pe durata interimatului functiei prezidentiale.

 

Articolul 98

Raspunderea presedintelui interimar

Daca persoana care asigura interimatul functiei de Presedinte al Romaniei savarseste fapte grave, prin care se incalca prevederile Constitutiei, se aplica articolul 95 si articolul 97.

 

Articolul 99

Actele Presedintelui

(1) In exercitarea atributiilor sale, Presedintele Romaniei emite decrete care se publica in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei. Nepublicarea atrage inexistenta decretului.

(2) Decretele emise de Presedintele Romaniei in exercitarea atributiilor sale prevazute in articolul 91 alineatele (1) si (2), articolul 92 alineatele (2) si (3), articolul 93 alineatul (1) si articolul 94 literele a), b) si d) se contrasemneaza de primul-ministru.

 

Articolul 100

Indemnizatia si celelalte drepturi

Indemnizatia si celelalte drepturi ale Presedintelui Romaniei se stabilesc prin lege.

 

Capitolul III

Guvernul

 

Articolul 101

Rolul si structura

(1) Guvernul, potrivit programului sau de guvernare acceptat de Parlament, asigura realizarea politicii interne si externe a tarii si exercita conducerea generala a administratiei publice.

(2) In indeplinirea atributiilor sale, Guvernul coopereaza cu organismele sociale interesate.

(3) Guvernul este alcatuit din prim-ministru, ministri si alti membri stabiliti prin lege organica.

 

Articolul 102

Investitura

(1) Presedintele Romaniei desemneaza un candidat pentru functia de prim-ministru, in urma consultarii partidului care are majoritatea absoluta in Parlament ori, daca nu exista o asemenea majoritate, a partidelor reprezentate in Parlament.

(2) Candidatul pentru functia de prim-ministru va cere, in termen de 10 zile de la desemnare, votul de incredere al Parlamentului asupra programului si a intregii liste a Guvernului.

(3) Programul si lista Guvernului se dezbat de Camera Deputatilor si de Senat, in sedinta comuna. Parlamentul acorda incredere Guvernului cu votul majoritatii deputatilor si senatorilor.

 

Articolul 103

Juramantul de credinta

(1) Primul-ministru, ministrii si ceilalti membri ai Guvernului vor depune individual, in fata Presedintelui Romaniei, juramantul de la articolul 82.

(2) Guvernul in intregul sau si fiecare membru in parte isi exercita mandatul, incepand de la data depunerii juramantului.

 

Articolul 104

Incompatibilitati

(1) Functia de membru al Guvernului este incompatibila cu exercitarea altei functii publice de autoritate, cu exceptia celei de deputat sau de senator. De asemenea, ea este incompatibila cu exercitarea unei functii de reprezentare profesionala salarizata in cadrul organizatiilor cu scop comercial.

(2) Alte incompatibilitati se stabilesc prin lege organica.

 

Articolul 105

Incetarea functiei de membru al Guvernului

Functia de membru al Guvernului inceteaza in urma demisiei, a revocarii, a pierderii drepturilor electorale, a starii de incompatibilitate, a decesului, precum si in alte cazuri prevazute de lege.

 

Articolul 106

Primul-ministru

(1) Primul-ministru conduce Guvernul si coordoneaza activitatea membrilor acestuia, respectand atributiile ce le revin. De asemenea, prezinta Camerei Deputatilor sau Senatului rapoarte si declaratii cu privire la politica Guvernului, care se dezbat cu prioritate.

(2) Daca primul-ministru se afla intr-una din situatiile prevazute la articolul 105 sau este in imposibilitate de a-si exercita atributiile, Presedintele Romaniei va desemna un alt membru al Guvernului ca prim- ministru interimar, pentru a indeplini atributiile primului-ministru, pana la formarea noului Guvern. Interimatul, pe perioada imposibilitatii exercitarii atributiilor, inceteaza daca primul-ministru isi reia activitatea in Guvern.

(3) Prevederile alineatului (2) se aplica in mod corespunzator si celorlalti membri ai Guvernului, la propunerea primului-ministru, pentru o perioada de cel mult 45 de zile.

 

Articolul 107

Actele Guvernului

(1) Guvernul adopta hotarari si ordonante.

(2) Hotararile se emit pentru organizarea executarii legilor.

(3) Ordonantele se emit in temeiul unei legi speciale de abilitare, in limitele si in conditiile prevazute de aceasta.

(4) Hotararile si ordonantele adoptate de Guvern se semneaza de primul-ministru, se contrasemneaza de ministrii care au obligatia punerii lor in executare si se publica in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei. Nepublicarea atrage inexistenta hotararii sau a ordonantei. Hotararile care au caracter militar se comunica numai institutiilor interesate.

 

Articolul 108

Raspunderea membrilor Guvernului

(1) Guvernul raspunde politic numai in fata Parlamentului pentru intreaga sa activitate. Fiecare membru al Guvernului raspunde politic solidar cu ceilalti membri pentru activitatea Guvernului si pentru actele acestuia.

(2) Numai Camera Deputatilor, Senatul si Presedintele Romaniei au dreptul sa ceara urmarirea penala a membrilor Guvernului pentru faptele savarsite in exercitiul functiei lor. Daca s-a cerut urmarirea penala, Presedintele Romaniei poate dispune suspendarea acestora din functie. Trimiterea in judecata a unui membru al Guvernului atrage suspendarea lui din functie. Competenta de judecata apartine Curtii Supreme de Justitie.

(3) Cazurile de raspundere si pedepsele aplicabile membrilor Guvernului sunt reglementate printr-o lege privind responsabilitatea ministeriala.

 

Articolul 109

Incetarea mandatului

(1) Guvernul isi exercita mandatul pana la data validarii alegerilor parlamentare generale.

(2) Guvernul este demis la data retragerii de Parlament a increderii acordate sau daca primul-ministru se afla intr-una din situatiile prevazute in articolul 105 ori este in imposibilitatea de a-si exercita atributiile mai mult de 45 de zile.

(3) In situatiile prevazute in alineatul (2) sunt aplicabile prevederile articolului 102.

(4) Guvernul al carui mandat a incetat potrivit alineatelor (1) si (2) indeplineste numai actele necesare pentru administrarea treburilor publice, pana la depunerea juramantului de membrii noului Guvern.

 

Capitolul IV

Raporturile Parlamentului cu Guvernul

 

Articolul 110

Informarea Parlamentului

(1) Guvernul si celelalte organe ale administratiei publice, in cadrul controlului parlamentar al activitatii lor, sunt obligate sa prezinte informatiile si documentele cerute de Camera Deputatilor, de Senat sau de comisiile parlamentare, prin intermediul presedintilor acestora. In cazul in care o initiativa legislativa implica modificarea prevederilor bugetului de stat sau a bugetului asigurarilor sociale de stat, solicitarea informarii este obligatorie.

(2) Membrii Guvernului au acces la lucrarile Parlamentului. Daca li se solicita prezenta, participarea lor este obligatorie.

 

Articolul 111

Intrebari si interpelari

(1) Guvernul si fiecare dintre membrii sai sunt obligati sa raspunda la intrebarile sau la interpelarile formulate de deputati sau de senatori.

(2) Camera Deputatilor sau Senatul poate adopta o motiune prin care sa-si exprime pozitia cu privire la problema ce a facut obiectul interpelarii.

 

Articolul 112

Motiunea de cenzura

(1) Camera Deputatilor si Senatul, in sedinta comuna, pot retrage increderea acordata Guvernului prin adoptarea unei motiuni de cenzura, cu votul majoritatii deputatilor si senatorilor.

(2) Motiunea de cenzura poate fi initiata de cel putin o patrime din numarul total al deputatilor si senatorilor si se comunica Guvernului la data depunerii.

(3) Motiunea de cenzura se dezbate dupa 3 zile de la data cand a fost prezentata in sedinta comuna a celor doua Camere.

(4) Daca motiunea de cenzura a fost respinsa, deputatii si senatorii care au semnat-o nu mai pot initia, in aceeasi sesiune, o noua motiune de cenzura, cu exceptia cazului in care Guvernul isi angajeaza raspunderea potrivit articolului 113.

 

Articolul 113

Angajarea raspunderii Guvernului

(1) Guvernul isi poate angaja raspunderea in fata Camerei Deputatilor si a Senatului, in sedinta comuna, asupra unui program, a unei declaratii de politica generala sau a unui proiect de lege.

(2) Guvernul este demis daca o motiune de cenzura, depusa in termen de 3 zile de la prezentarea programului, a declaratiei de politica generala sau a proiectului de lege, a fost votata in conditiile articolului 112.

(3) Daca Guvernul nu a fost demis potrivit alineatului (2), proiectul de lege prezentat se considera adoptat, iar programul sau declaratia de politica generala devine obligatorie pentru Guvern.

(4) In cazul in care Presedintele Romaniei cere reexaminarea legii adoptate potrivit alineatului (3), dezbaterea acesteia se va face in sedinta comuna a celor doua Camere.

 

Articolul 114

Delegarea legislativa

(1) Parlamentul poate adopta o lege speciala de abilitare a Guvernului pentru a emite ordonante in domenii care nu fac obiectul legilor organice.

(2) Legea de abilitare va stabili, in mod obligatoriu, domeniul si data pana la care se pot emite ordonante.

(3) Daca legea de abilitare o cere, ordonantele se supun aprobarii Parlamentului, potrivit procedurii legislative, pana la implinirea termenului de abilitare. Nerespectarea termenului atrage incetarea efectelor ordonantei.

(4) In cazuri exceptionale, Guvernul poate adopta ordonante de urgenta. Acestea intra in vigoare numai dupa depunerea lor spre aprobare la Parlament. Daca Parlamentul nu se afla in sesiune, el se convoaca in mod obligatoriu.

(5) Aprobarea sau respingerea ordonantelor se face printr-o lege in care vor fi cuprinse si ordonantele ale caror efecte au incetat potrivit alineatului (3).

 

 

Capitolul V

Administratia publica

 

Sectiunea 1

Administratia publica centrala de specialitate

 

Articolul 115

Structura

(1) Ministerele se organizeaza numai in subordinea Guvernului.

(2) Alte organe de specialitate se pot organiza in subordinea Guvernului ori a ministerelor sau ca autoritati administrative autonome.

 

Articolul 116

Infiintarea

(1) Ministerele se infiinteaza, se organizeaza si functioneaza potrivit legii.

(2) Guvernul si ministerele, cu avizul Curtii de Conturi, pot infiinta organe de specialitate, in subordinea lor, numai daca legea le recunoaste aceasta competenta.

(3) Autoritati administrative autonome se pot infiinta prin lege organica.

 

Articolul 117

Fortele armate

(1) Armata este subordonata exclusiv vointei poporului pentru garantarea suveranitatii, a independentei si a unitatii statului, a integritatii teritoriale a tarii si a democratiei constitutionale.

(2) Structura sistemului national de aparare, organizarea armatei, pregatirea populatiei, a economiei si a teritoriului pentru aparare, precum si statutul cadrelor militare, se stabilesc prin lege organica.

(3) Prevederile alineatelor (1) si (2) se aplica, in mod corespunzator, politiei si serviciilor de informatii ale statului, precum si celorlalte componente ale fortelor armate.

(4) Organizarea de activitati militare sau paramilitare in afara unei autoritati statale este interzisa.

(5) Pe teritoriul Romaniei nu pot intra sau trece trupe straine decat in conditiile stabilite de lege.

 

Articolul 118

Consiliul Suprem de Aparare a Tarii

Consiliul Suprem de Aparare a Tarii organizeaza si coordoneaza unitar activitatile care privesc apararea tarii si siguranta nationala.

 

Sectiunea a 2-a

Administratia publica locala

 

Articolul 119

Principii de baza

Administratia publica din unitatile administrativ-teritoriale se intemeiaza pe principiul autonomiei locale si pe cel al descentralizarii serviciilor publice.

 

Articolul 120

Autoritati comunale si orasenesti

(1) Autoritatile administratiei publice, prin care se realizeaza autonomia locala in comune si in orase, sunt consiliile locale alese si primarii alesi, in conditiile legii.

(2) Consiliile locale si primarii functioneaza, in conditiile legii, ca autoritati administrative autonome si rezolva treburile publice din comune si din orase.

(3) Autoritatile prevazute la alineatul (1) se pot constitui si in subdiviziunile administrativ-teritoriale ale municipiilor.

 

Articolul 121

Consiliul judetean

(1) Consiliul judetean este autoritatea administratiei publice pentru coordonarea activitatii consiliilor comunale si orasenesti, in vederea realizarii serviciilor publice de interes judetean.

(2) Consiliul judetean este ales si functioneaza in conditiile legii.

 

Articolul 122

Prefectul

(1) Guvernul numeste cate un prefect in fiecare judet si in municipiul Bucuresti.

(2) Prefectul este reprezentantul Guvernului pe plan local si conduce serviciile publice descentralizate ale ministerelor si ale celorlalte organe centrale, din unitatile administrativ-teritoriale.

(3) Atributiile prefectului se stabilesc potrivit legii.

(4) Prefectul poate ataca, in fata instantei de contencios administrativ, un act al consiliului judetean, al celui local sau al primarului, in cazul in care considera actul ilegal. Actul atacat este suspendat de drept.

 

Capitolul VI

Autoritatea judecatoreasca

 

Sectiunea 1

Instantele judecatoresti

 

Articolul 123

Infaptuirea justitiei

(1) Justitia se infaptuieste in numele legii.

(2) Judecatorii sunt independenti si se supun numai legii.

 

Articolul 124

Statutul judecatorilor

(1) Judecatorii numiti de Presedintele Romaniei sunt inamovibili, potrivit legii. Presedintele si ceilalti judecatori ai Curtii Supreme de Justitie sunt numiti pe o perioada de 6 ani. Ei pot fi reinvestiti in functie. Promovarea, transferarea si sanctionarea judecatorilor pot fi dispuse numai de Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii, in conditiile legii.

(2) Functia de judecator este incompatibila cu orice alta functie publica sau privata, cu exceptia functiilor didactice din invatamantul superior.

 

Articolul 125

Instantele judecatoresti

(1) Justitia se realizeaza prin Curtea Suprema de Justitie si prin celelalte instante judecatoresti stabilite de lege.

(2) Este interzisa infiintarea de instante extraordinare.

(3) Competenta si procedura de judecata sunt stabilite de lege.

 

Articolul 126

Caracterul public al dezbaterilor

Sedintele de judecata sunt publice, afara de cazurile prevazute de lege.

 

Articolul 127

Dreptul la interpret

(1) Procedura judiciara se desfasoara in limba romana. (2) Cetatenii apartinand minoritatilor nationale, precum si persoanele care nu inteleg sau nu vorbesc limba romana au dreptul de a lua cunostinta de toate actele si lucrarile dosarului, de a vorbi in instanta si de a pune concluzii, prin interpret; in procesele penale acest drept este asigurat in mod gratuit.

 

Articolul 128

Folosirea cailor de atac

Impotriva hotararilor judecatoresti, partile interesate si Ministerul Public pot exercita caile de atac, in conditiile legii.

 

Articolul 129

Politia instantelor

Instantele judecatoresti dispun de politia pusa in serviciul lor.

 

Sectiunea a 2-a

Ministerul Public

 

Articolul 130

Rolul Ministerului Public

(1) In activitatea judiciara, Ministerul Public reprezinta interesele generale ale societatii si apara ordinea de drept, precum si drepturile si libertatile cetatenilor.

(2) Ministerul Public isi exercita atributiile prin procurori constituiti in parchete, in conditiile legii.

 

Articolul 131

Statutul procurorilor

(1) Procurorii isi desfasoara activitatea potrivit principiului legalitatii, al impartialitatii si al controlului ierarhic, sub autoritatea ministrului justitiei.

(2) Functia de procuror este incompatibila cu orice alta functie publica sau privata, cu exceptia functiilor didactice din invatamantul superior.

 

Sectiunea a 3-a

Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii

 

Articolul 132

Componenta

Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii este alcatuit din magistrati alesi, pentru o durata de 4 ani, de Camera Deputatilor si de Senat, in sedinta comuna.

 

Articolul 133

Atributii

(1) Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii propune Presedintelui Romaniei numirea in functie a judecatorilor si a procurorilor, cu exceptia celor stagiari, in conditiile legii. In acest caz, lucrarile sunt prezidate, fara drept de vot, de ministrul justitiei.

(2) Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii indeplineste rolul de consiliu de disciplina al judecatorilor. In acest caz, lucrarile sunt prezidate de presedintele Curtii Supreme de Justitie.

 

Titlul IV

Economia si finantele publice

 

Articolul 134

Economia

(1) Economia Romaniei este economie de piata.

(2) Statul trebuie sa asigure:

a) libertatea comertului, protectia concurentei loiale, crearea cadrului favorabil pentru valorificarea tuturor factorilor de productie;

b) protejarea intereselor nationale in activitatea economica, financiara si valutara;

c) stimularea cercetarii stiintifice nationale;

d) exploatarea resurselor naturale, in concordanta cu interesul national;

e) refacerea si ocrotirea mediului inconjurator, precum si mentinerea echilibrului ecologic;

f) crearea conditiilor necesare pentru cresterea calitatii vietii.

 

Articolul 135

Proprietatea

(1) Statul ocroteste proprietatea.

(2) Proprietatea este publica sau privata.

(3) Proprietatea publica apartine statului sau unitatilor administrativ-teritoriale.

(4) Bogatiile de orice natura ale subsolului, caile de comunicatie, spatiul aerian, apele cu potential energetic valorificabil si acelea ce pot fi folosite in interes public, plajele, marea teritoriala, resursele naturale ale zonei economice si ale platoului continental, precum si alte bunuri stabilite de lege, fac obiectul exclusiv al proprietatii publice.

(5) Bunurile proprietate publica sunt inalienabile. In conditiile legii, ele pot fi date in administrare regiilor autonome ori institutiilor publice sau pot fi concesionate ori inchiriate.

(6) Proprietatea privata este, in conditiile legii, inviolabila.

 

Articolul 136

Sistemul financiar

(1) Formarea, administrarea, intrebuintarea si controlul resurselor financiare ale statului, ale unitatilor administrativ-teritoriale si ale institutiilor publice sunt reglementate prin lege.

(2) Moneda nationala este leul, iar subdiviziunea acestuia, banul.

 

Articolul 137

Bugetul public national

(1) Bugetul public national cuprinde bugetul de stat, bugetul asigurarilor sociale de stat si bugetele locale ale comunelor, ale oraselor si ale judetelor.

(2) Guvernul elaboreaza anual proiectul bugetului de stat si pe cel al asigurarilor sociale de stat, pe care le supune, separat, aprobarii Parlamentului.

(3) Daca legea bugetului de stat si legea bugetului asigurarilor sociale de stat nu au fost adoptate cu cel putin 3 zile inainte de expirarea exercitiului bugetar, se aplica in continuare bugetul de stat si bugetul asigurarilor sociale de stat ale anului precedent, pana la adoptarea noilor bugete.

(4) Bugetele locale se elaboreaza, se aproba si se executa in conditiile legii.

(5) Nici o cheltuiala bugetara nu poate fi aprobata fara stabilirea sursei de finantare.

 

Articolul 138

Impozite, taxe

(1) Impozitele, taxele si orice alte venituri ale bugetului de stat si ale bugetului asigurarilor sociale de stat se stabilesc numai prin lege.

(2) Impozitele si taxele locale se stabilesc de consiliile locale sau judetene, in limitele si in conditiile legii.

 

Articolul 139

Curtea de Conturi

(1) Curtea de Conturi exercita controlul asupra modului de formare, de administrare, de intrebuintare a resurselor financiare ale statului si ale sectorului public. In conditiile legii, Curtea exercita si atributii jurisdictionale.

(2) Curtea de Conturi prezinta anual Parlamentului un raport asupra conturilor de gestiune ale bugetului public national din exercitiul bugetar expirat, cuprinzand si neregulile constatate.

(3) La cererea Camerei Deputatilor sau a Senatului, Curtea de Conturi controleaza modul de gestionare a resurselor publice si raporteaza despre cele constatate.

(4) Membrii Curtii de Conturi, numiti de Parlament, sunt independenti si inamovibili, potrivit legii. Ei sunt supusi incompatibilitatilor prevazute de lege pentru judecatori.

 

Titlul V

Curtea Constitutionala

 

Articolul 140

Structura

(1) Curtea Constitutionala se compune din noua judecatori, numiti pentru un mandat de 9 ani, care nu poate fi prelungit sau innoit.

(2) Trei judecatori sunt numiti de Camera Deputatilor, trei de Senat si trei de Presedintele Romaniei.

(3) Judecatorii Curtii Constitutionale aleg, prin vot secret, presedintele acesteia, pentru o perioada de 3 ani.

(4) Curtea Constitutionala se innoieste cu o treime din judecatorii ei, din 3 in 3 ani, in conditiile prevazute de legea organica a Curtii.

 

Articolul 141

Conditii pentru numire

Judecatorii Curtii Constitutionale trebuie sa aiba pregatire juridica superioara, inalta competenta profesionala si o vechime de cel putin 18 ani in activitatea juridica sau in invatamantul juridic superior.

 

Articolul 142

Incompatibilitati

Functia de judecator al Curtii Constitutionale este incompatibila cu oricare alta functie publica sau privata, cu exceptia functiilor didactice din invatamantul juridic superior.

 

Articolul 143

Independenta si inamovibilitatea

Judecatorii Curtii Constitutionale sunt independenti in exercitarea mandatului lor si inamovibili pe durata acestuia.

 

Articolul 144

Atributii

Curtea Constitutionala are urmatoarele atributii:

a) se pronunta asupra constitutionalitatii legilor, inainte de promulgarea acestora, la sesizarea Presedintelui Romaniei, a unuia dintre presedintii celor doua Camere, a guvernului, a Curtii Supreme de Justitie, a unui numar de cel putin 50 de deputati sau de cel putin 25 de senatori, precum si, din oficiu, asupra initiativelor de revizuire a Constitutiei;

b) se pronunta asupra constitutionalitatii regulamentelor Parlamentului, la sesizarea unuia dintre presedintii celor doua Camere, a unui grup parlamentar sau a unui numar de cel putin 50 de deputati sau de cel putin 25 de senatori;

c) hotaraste asupra exceptiilor ridicate in fata instantelor judecatoresti privind neconstitutionalitatea legilor si a ordonantelor;

d) vegheaza la respectarea procedurii pentru alegerea Presedintelui Romaniei si confirma rezultatele sufragiului;

e) constata existenta imprejurarilor care justifica interimatul in exercitarea functiei de Presedinte al Romaniei si comunica cele constatate Parlamentului.si Guvernului;

f) da aviz consultativ pentru propunerea de suspendare din functie a Presedintelui Romaniei;

g) vegheaza la respectarea procedurii pentru organizarea si desfasurarea referendumului si confirma rezultatele acestuia;

h) verifica indeplinirea conditiilor pentru exercitarea initiativei legislative de catre cetateni;

i) hotaraste asupra contestatiilor care au ca obiect constitutionalitatea unui partid politic.

 

Articolul 145

Deciziile Curtii Constitutionale

(1) In cazurile de neconstitutionalitate constatate potrivit articolului 144 literele a) si b), legea sau regulamentul se trimite spre reexaminare. Daca legea este adoptata in aceeasi forma, cu o majoritate de cel putin doua treimi din numarul membrilor fiecarei Camere, obiectia de neconstitutionalitate este inlaturata, iar promulgarea devine obligatorie.

(2) Deciziile Curtii Constitutionale sunt obligatorii si au putere numai pentru viitor. Ele se publica in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei.

 

 

Titlul VI

Revizuirea Constitutiei

Articolul 146

Initiativa revizuirii

(1) Revizuirea Constitutiei poate fi initiata de Presedintele Romaniei la propunerea Guvernului, de cel putin o patrime numarul deputatilor sau al senatorilor, precum si de cel putin 500.000 de cetateni cu drept de vot.

(2) Cetatenii care initiaza revizuirea Constitutiei trebuie sa provina din cel putin jumatate din judetele tarii, iar in fiecare din aceste judete sau in municipiul Bucuresti trebuie sa fie inregistrate cel putin 20.000 semnaturi in sprijinul acestei initiative.

 

Articolul 147

Procedura de revizuire

(1) Proiectul sau propunerea de revizuire trebuie adoptata de Camera Deputatilor si de Senat, cu o majoritate de cel putin doua treimi din numarul membrilor fiecarei Camere.

(2) Daca prin procedura de mediere nu se ajunge la un acord, Camera Deputatilor si Senatul, in sedinta comuna, hotarasc cu votul a cel putin trei patrimi din numarul deputatilor si senatorilor.

(3) Revizuirea este definitiva dupa aprobarea ei prin referendum, organizat in cel mult 30 de zile de la data adoptarii proiectului sau a propunerii de revizuire.

 

Articolul 148

Limitele revizuirii

(1) Dispozitiile prezentei Constitutii privind caracterul national, independent unitar si indivizibil al statului roman, forma republicana de guvernamant, integritatea teritoriului, independenta justitiei, pluralismul politic si limba oficiala nu pot forma obiectul revizuirii.

(2) De asemenea, nici o revizuire nu poate fi facuta daca are ca rezultat suprimarea drepturilor si a libertatilor fundamentale ale cetatenilor sau a garantiilor acestora.

(3) Constitutia nu poate fi revizuita pe durata starii de asediu sau a starii de urgenta si nici in timp de razboi.

 

 

Titlul VII

Dispozitii finale si tranzitorii

 

Articolul 149

Intrarea in vigoare

Prezenta Constitutie intra in vigoare la data aprobarii ei prin referendum. La aceeasi data, Constitutia din 21 August 1965 este si ramane in intregime abrogata.

 

Articolul 150

Conflictul temporar de legi

(1) Legile si toate celelalte acte normative raman in vigoare, in masura in care ele nu contravin prezentei Constitutii.

(2) Consiliul Legislativ, in termen de 12 luni de la data intrarii in vigoare a legii sale de organizare, va examina conformitatea legislatiei cu prezenta Constitutie si va face Parlamentului sau, dupa caz, Guvernului, propuneri corespunzatoare.

 

Articolul 151

Institutiile existente

(1) Institutiile republicii, existente la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii, raman in functiune pana la constituirea celor noi.

(2) Noua Curte Suprema de Justitie va fi numita, in conditiile legii, de Camera Deputatilor si de Senat, in sedinta comuna, la propunerea Presedintelui Romaniei, in termen de 6 luni de la intrarea in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii.

 

Articolul 152

Institutiile viitoare

(1) In termen de 6 luni de la data intrarii in vigoare a Constitutiei, se infiinteaza Curtea Constitutionala si Curtea de Conturi.

(2) Judecatorii primei Curti Constitutionale sunt numiti pentru o perioada de 3, de 6 si, respectiv, de 9 ani. Presedintele Romaniei, Camera Deputatilor si Senatul desemneaza cate un judecator pentru fiecare perioada.

 

 

Constitutia Romaniei a fost adoptata in Adunarea Constituanta la 21 noiembrie 1991 si a intrat in vigoare in urma aprobarii ei prin referendumul national din 8 decembrie 1991.

 

Textul Constitutiei a fost publicat in Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei, Partea I, Nr. 233 din 21 noiembrie 1991.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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