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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO

(Podgorica 19 October 2007)

Stemming from:

The decision of the citizens of Montenegro to live in an independent and sovereign state of Montenegro, made in the referendum held on May 21, 2006;

The commitment of the citizens of Montenegro to live in a state in which the basic values are freedom, peace, tolerance, respect for human rights and liberties, multiculturalism, democracy and the rule of law;

The determination that we, as free and equal citizens, members of peoples and national minorities who live in Montenegro: Montenegrins, Serbs, Bosniacs, Albanians, Muslims, Croats and the others, are committed to democratic and civic Montenegro;

The conviction that the state is responsible for the preservation of nature, sound environment, sustainable development, balanced development of all its regions and the establishment of social justice;

The dedication to cooperation on equal footing with other nations and states and to the European and Euro-Atlantic integrations,

the Constitutional assembly of the Republic of Montenegro, at its third sitting of the second regular session in 2007, held on adopts

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC

OF MONTENEGRO

PART ONE

BASIC PROVISIONS

The State

Article 1

Montenegro is an independent and sovereign state, with the republican form of government.

Montenegro is a civil, democratic, ecological and the state of social justice, based on the rule of law.

Sovereignty

Article 2

Bearer of sovereignty is the citizen with Montenegrin citizenship.

The citizen shall exercise power directly and through the freely elected representatives.

The power not stemming from the freely expressed will of the citizens in democratic election in accordance with the law, can neither be established nor recognised.

State territory

Article 3

The territory of Montenegro is unified and inalienable.

State symbols

Article 4

Montenegro shall have a coat of arms, a flag and a national anthem.

The coat of arms of Montenegro shall be the golden double-headed eagle with lion on its chest.

The flag of Montenegro shall be red in color, with the coat of arms in the center and the golden brim.

The national anthem of Montenegro shall be “Oj svijetla majska zoro”.

Capital and Old Royal Capital

Article 5

The capital of Montenegro shall be Podgorica,

The Old Royal Capital of Montenegro shall be Cetinje.

Human rights and liberties

Article 6

Montenegro shall guarantee and protect rights and liberties.

The rights and liberties shall be inviolable.

Everyone shall be obliged to respect the rights and liberties of others.

Prohibition of infliction of hatred

Article 7

Infliction or encouragement of hatred or intolerance on any grounds shall be prohibited.

Prohibition of discrimination

Article 8

Direct or indirect discrimination on any grounds shall be prohibited.

Regulations and introduction of special measures aimed at creating the conditions for the exercise of national, gender and overall equality and protection of persons who are in an unequal position on any grounds shall not be considered discrimination.

Special measures may only be applied until the achievement of the aims for which they were undertaken.

Legal order

Article 9

The ratified and published international agreements and generally accepted rules of international law shall make an integral part of the internal legal order, shall have the supremacy over the national legislation and shall be directly applicable when they regulate the relations differently from the internal legislation.

Limits of liberties

Article 10

In Montenegro, anything not prohibited by the Constitution and the law shall be free.

Everybody is obliged to abide by the Constitution and the law.

Division of powers

Article 11

The power shall be regulated following the principle of the division of powers into the legislative, executive and judicial.

The legislative power shall be exercised by the Parliament, the executive power by the Government and the judicial by courts.

The power is limited by the Constitution and the law.

The relationship between powers shall be based on balance and mutual control.

Montenegro shall be represented by the President of Montenegro.

Constitutionality and legality shall be protected by the Constitutional Court.

Army and security services shall be under democratic and civil control.

Montenegrin citizenship

Article 12

In Montenegro there shall be a Montenegrin citizenship.

Montenegro shall protect the rights and interests of the Montenegrin citizens.

Montenegrin citizen shall not be expelled or extradited to other state, except in accordance with the international obligations of Montenegro.

Language and alphabet

Article 13

The official language in Montenegro shall be Montenegrin.

Cyrillic and Latin alphabet shall be equal.

Serbian, Bosniac, Albanian and Croatian shall also be in the official use.

Separation of the religious communities from the State

Article 14

Religious communities shall be separated from the state.

Religious communities shall be equal and free in the exercise of religious rites and religious affairs.

Relations with other states and international organizations

Article 15

Montenegro shall cooperate and develop friendly relations with other states, regional and international organizations, based on the principles and rules of international law.

Montenegro may accede to international organizations.

The Parliament shall decide on the manner of accession to the European Union.

Montenegro shall not enter into a union with another state by which it loses its independence and full international personality.

Legislation

Article 16

The law, in accordance with the Constitution, shall regulate:

1) the manner of exercise of human rights and liberties, when this is necessary for their exercise;
2) the manner of exercise of the special minority rights;
3) the manner of establishment, organization and competences of the authorities and the procedure before those authorities, if so required for their operation;
4) the system of local self-government;
5) other matters of interest for Montenegro.

PART TWO

HUMAN RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

1. COMMON PROVISIONS

Grounds and equality

Article 17

Rights and liberties shall be exercised on the basis of the Constitution and the confirmed international agreements.

All shall be deemed equal before the law, regardless of any particularity or personal feature.

Gender equality

Article 18

The state shall guarantee the equality of women and men and shall develop the policy of equal opportunities.

Protection

Article 19

Everyone shall have the right to equal protection of the rights and liberties thereof.

Legal remedy

Article 20

Everyone shall have the right to legal remedy against the decision ruling on the right or legally based interest thereof.

Legal aid

Article 21

Everyone shall have the right to legal aid.

Legal aid shall be provided by the bar, as an independent and autonomous profession, and by other services.

Legal aid may be provided free of charge, in accordance with the law.

Right to local self-government

Article 22

The right to local self-government shall be guaranteed.

Environment

Article 23

Everyone shall have the right to a sound environment.

Everyone shall have the right to receive timely and full information about the status of the environment, to influence the decision-making regarding the issues of importance for the environment, and to legal protection of these rights.

Everyone, the state in particular, shall be bound to preserve and improve the environment

Limitation of human rights and liberties

Article 24

Guaranteed human rights and freedoms may be limited only by the law, within the scope permitted by the Constitution and to such an extent which is necessary to meet the purpose for which the limitation is allowed, in an open and democratic society.

Limitations shall not be introduced for other purposes except for those for which they have been provided for.

Temporary limitation of rights and liberties

Article 25

During the proclaimed state of war or emergency, the exercise of certain human rights and freedoms may be limited, to the necessary extent.

The limitations shall not be introduced on the grounds of sex, nationality, race, religion, language, ethnic or social origin, political or other beliefs, financial standing or any other personal feature.

There shall be no limitations imposed on the rights to: life, legal remedy and legal aid; dignity and respect of a person; fair and public trail and the principle of legality; presumption of innocence; defense; compensation of damage for illegal or ungrounded deprivation of liberty and ungrounded conviction; freedom of thought, conscience and religion; entry into marriage.

There shall be no abolishment of the prohibition of: inflicting or encouraging hatred or intolerance; discrimination; trial and conviction twice for one and the same criminal offence (ne bis in idem); forced assimilation.

Measures of limitation may be in effect at the most for the duration of the state of war or emergency.

2. PERSONAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

Prohibition of death penalty

Article 26

The death penalty shall be prohibited in Montenegro.

Bio-medicine

Article 27

The right of a person and dignity of a human being with regard to the application of biology and medicine shall be guaranteed.

Any intervention aimed at creating a human being that is genetically identical to another human being, living or dead shall be prohibited.

It is prohibited to perform medical and other experiments on human beings, without their permission.

Dignity and inviolability of persona

Article 28

The dignity and security of a man shall be guaranteed.

The inviolability of the physical and mental integrity of a man, and privacy and individual rights thereof shall be guaranteed.

No one can be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment.

No one can be kept in slavery or servile position.

Deprivation of liberty

Article 29

Everyone shall have the right to personal liberty.

Deprivation of liberty is allowed only for reasons and in the procedure provided for by law.

Person deprived of liberty shall be notified immediately of the reasons for the arrest thereof, in own language or in the language he/she understands.

Concurrently, person deprived of liberty shall be informed that he/she is not obliged to give any statement.

At the request of the person deprived of his/her liberty, the authority shall immediately inform about the deprivation of liberty the person of own choosing of the person deprived of his/her liberty.

The person deprived of his/her liberty shall have the right to the defense counsel of his/her own choosing present at his interrogation.

Unlawful deprivation of liberty shall be punishable.

Detention

Article 30

Person suspected with reasonable doubt to have committed a crime may, on the basis of the decision of the competent court, be detained and kept in confinement only if this is necessary for the pre-trial procedure.

Detainee shall be given the explained decision of detention at the time of being placed in detention or at the latest 24 hours from being put in detention.

Detainee shall have the right of appeal against the decision of detention, upon which the court shall decide within 48 hours.

The duration of detention shall be reduced to the shortest possible period of time.

Detention by the decision of first-instance court may last up to three months from the day of detention, and by the decision of a higher court, the detention may be extended for additional three months.

If no indictment is raised by that time, the detainee shall be released.

Detention of minors may not exceed 60 days.

Respect for person

Article 31

The respect of human personality and dignity in the criminal or other procedure, in case of deprivation or limitation of liberty and during the execution of imprisonment sentence shall be guaranteed.

Any form of violence, inhuman or degrading behavior against a person deprived of liberty or whose liberty has been limited, and any extortion of confession and statement shall be prohibited and punishable.

Fair and public trial

Article 32

Everyone shall have the right to fair and public trial within reasonable time before an independent and impartial court established by the law.

Principle of legality

Article 33

No one may be punished for an act that, prior to being committed, was not stipulated by the law as punishable, nor may be pronounced a punishment which was not envisaged for that act.

More lenient law

Article 34

Criminal and other punishable acts are stipulated and the punishments for them are pronounced in accordance with the law in force at the time when the act was committed, unless the new law is more favorable for the perpetrator.

Presumption of innocence

Article 35

Every one shall be deemed innocent until the guilt thereof has been established by an enforceable court decision.

The accused shall not be obliged to prove the innocence thereof.

The court shall interpret the doubt regarding the guilt to the benefit of the accused.

Ne bis in idem

Article 36

No one may be trialed or convicted twice for one and the same punishable act.

Right to defense

Article 37

Every one shall be guaranteed the right to defense, and especially: to be informed in the language he/she understands about the charges against thereof; to have sufficient time to prepare defense and to be defended personally or through a defense attorney of his/her own choosing.

Compensation of damage for illegal action

Article 38

Person deprived of liberty in an illegal or ungrounded manner or convicted without grounds shall have the right to the compensation of damage from the state.

Movement and residence

Article 39

The right to freedom of movement and residence shall be guaranteed, as well as the right to leave Montenegro.

Freedom of movement, residence and leaving Montenegro may be restricted if required so for conducting the criminal procedure, prevention of contagious diseases spreading or for the security of Montenegro.

Movement and residence of foreigner citizens shall be regulated by the law.

Right to privacy

Article 40

Everybody shall have the right to respect for his/her private and family life.

Inviolability of home

Article 41

Home shall be inviolable.

No one shall enter the dwelling place or other premises against the will of the possessor thereof and search them without a court warrant.

The search of premises shall be conducted in the presence of two witnesses.

A person in official capacity may enter other people’s dwelling place or other premises without the court warrant and conduct the search without the presence of witnesses if so necessary for the prevention of execution of a criminal offence, immediate apprehension of a perpetrator or to save people and property.

Confidentiality of correspondence

Article 42

Confidentiality of letters, telephone conversations and other means of communication shall be inviolable.

The principle of inviolability of confidentiality of letters, telephone calls and other means of communication shall be deviated from only on the basis of a court decision, if so required for the purposes of conducting criminal proceedings or for the security of Montenegro.

Personal data

Article 43

The protection of personal data shall be guaranteed.

It is prohibited to use personal data for purposes other than those for which they were collected.

Everyone shall have the right to be informed about the personal data collected about him or her and the right to court protection in case of abuse.

Right to asylum

Article 44

A foreign national reasonably fearing from persecution on the grounds of his/her race, language, religion or association with a nation or a group or due to own political beliefs may request asylum in Montenegro.

A foreign national shall not be expelled from Montenegro to where due to his race, religion, language or association with a nation he/she is threatened with death sentence, torture, inhuman degradation, persecution or serious violation of rights guaranteed by this Constitution.

A foreign national may be expelled from Montenegro solely on the basis of a court decision and in a procedure provided for by the law.

3. POLITICAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

Electoral right

Article 45

The right to elect and stand for elections shall be granted to every citizen of Montenegro of 18 years of age and above with at least a two-year residence in Montenegro.

The electoral right shall be exercised in elections.

The electoral right shall be general and equal.

Elections shall be free and direct, by secret ballot.

Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

Article 46

Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, as well as the right to change the religion or belief and the freedom to, individually or collectively with others, publicly or privately, express the religion or belief by prayer, preaches, customs or rites.

No one shall be obliged to declare own religious and other beliefs.

Freedom to express religious beliefs may be restricted only if so required in order to protect life and health of the people, public peace and order, as well as other rights guaranteed by the Constitution.

Freedom of expression

Article 47

Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression by speech, writing, picture or in some other manner.

The right to freedom of expression may be limited only by the right of others to dignity, reputation and honor and if it threatens public morality or the security of Montenegro.

Objection of conscience

Article 48

Everyone shall have the right to objection of conscience.

No one shall be obliged, contrary to own religion or conviction, to fulfill a military or other duty involving the use of arms.

Freedom of press

Article 49

Freedom of press and other forms of public information shall be guaranteed.

The right to establish newspapers and other public information media, without approval, by registration with the competent authority, shall be guaranteed.

The right to a response and the right to a correction of any untrue, incomplete or incorrectly conveyed information that violates a person’s right or interest and the right to compensation of damage caused by the publication of untruthful data or information shall be guaranteed.

Prohibition of censorship

Article 50

There shall be no censorship in Montenegro.

The competent court may prevent dissemination of information and ideas via the public media if required so to: prevent invitation to forcible destruction of the order defined by the Constitution; preservation of territorial integrity of Montenegro; prevention of propagating war or incitement to violence or performance of criminal offences; prevention of propagating racial, national and religious hatred or discrimination.

Access to information

Article 51

Everyone shall have the right to access information held by the state authorities and organizations exercising public authority.

The right to access to information may be limited if this is in the interest of: the protection of life; public health; morality and privacy; carrying of criminal proceedings; security and defense of Montenegro; foreign, monetary and economic policy.

Freedom of assembly

Article 52

The freedom of peaceful assembly, without approval, with prior notification of the competent authority shall be guaranteed.

The freedom of assembly may be temporarily restricted by the decision of the competent authority in order to prevent disorder or execution of a criminal offence, threat to health, morality or security of people and property, in accordance with the law.

Freedom of association

Article 53

The freedom of political, trade union and other association and action, without approval, by the registration with the competent authority, shall be guaranteed.

No one shall be forced to become a member of an association.

The state supports political and other associations, when there is a public interest to do so.

Prohibition of organizing

Article 54

Political organizing in public bodies shall be prohibited.

A judge of the Constitutional Court, a judge, a state prosecutor and his deputy, an Ombudsman, a member of the Council of the Central Bank, a member of the Senate of the State Audit Institution, a professional member of the Army, Police and other security services shall not be a member of any political organization.

Political organizing and actions of foreign nationals and political organizations with the seat outside of Montenegro shall be prohibited.

Prohibition of operation and establishment

Article 55

The operation of political and other organizations directed towards forceful destruction of the constitutional order, infringement of the territorial integrity of Montenegro, violation of guaranteed freedoms and rights or instigating national, racial, and religious and other hatred and intolerance shall be prohibited.

The establishment of secret subversive organizations and irregular armies shall be prohibited.

Right to address international organisation

Article 56

Everyone shall have the right of recourse to international institutions for the protection of own rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution.

Right of recourse

Article 57

Everyone shall have the right of recourse, individually or collectively with others, to the state authority or the organisation exercising public powers and receive a response.

No one shall be held responsible, or suffer other harmful consequences due to the views expressed in the recourse, unless having committed a crime in doing so.

4. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

Property

Article 58

Property rights shall be guaranteed.

No one shall be deprived of or restricted in property rights, unless when so required by the public interest, with rightful compensation.

Natural wealth and goods in general use shall be owned by the state.

Entrepreneurship

Article 59

Freedom of entrepreneurship shall be guaranteed.

Freedom of entrepreneurship may be limited only if so necessary in order to protect the health of the people, environment, natural resources, cultural heritage or security and defense of Montenegro.

Right to succession

Article 60

The right to succession shall be guaranteed.

Rights of foreign nationals

Article 61

A foreign national may be the holder of property rights (subjekat prava svojine) in accordance with the law.

Right to work

Article 62

Everyone shall have the right to work, to free choice of occupation and employment, to fair and human working conditions and to protection during unemployment.

Prohibition of forced labor

Article 63

Forced labor shall be prohibited.

The following shall not be considered forced labor: labor customary during the serving of sentence, deprivation of liberty; performance of duties of military nature or duties required instead of military service; work demanded in case of crisis or accident that threatens human lives or property.

Rights of the employed

Article 64

The employed shall have the right to adequate salary.

The employed shall have the right to limited working hours and paid vacation.

The employed shall have the right to protection at work.

Youth, women and the disabled shall enjoy special protection at work.

Social council

Article 65

Social position of the employed shall be adjusted in the Social council.

Social council shall consist of the representatives of the trade union, the employers and the Government.

Strike

Article 66

The employed shall have the right to strike.

The right to strike may be limited to the employed in the Army, police, state bodies and public service with the aim to protect public interest, in accordance with the law.

Social insurance

Article 67

Social insurance of the employed shall be mandatory.

The state shall provide material security to the person that is unable to work and has no funds for life.

Protection of the persons with disability

Article 68

Special protection of the persons with disability shall be guaranteed.

Health protection

Article 69

Everyone shall have the right to health protection.

A child, a pregnant woman, an elderly person and a person with disability shall have the right to health protection from public revenues, if they do not exercise this right on some other grounds.

Consumer protection

Article 70

The state shall protect the consumer.

Actions that harm the health, security and privacy of consumers shall be prohibited.

Marriage

Article 71

Marriage may be entered into only on the basis of a free consent of a woman and a man.

Marriage shall be based on equality of spouses.

Family

Article 72

Family shall enjoy special protection.

Parents shall be obliged to take care of their children, to bring them up and educate them.

Children shall take care of their own parents in need of assistance.

Children born out of wedlock shall have the same rights and responsibilities as children born in marriage.

Protection of mother and child

Article 73

Mother and child shall enjoy special protection.

The state shall create the conditions that encourage childbirth.

Rights of a child

Article 74

A child shall enjoy rights and freedoms appropriate to his age and maturity.

A child shall be guaranteed special protection from psychological, physical, economic and any other exploitation or abuse.

Education

Article 75

The right to education under same conditions shall be guaranteed.

Elementary education shall be obligatory and free of charge.

The autonomy of universities, higher education and scientific institutions shall be guaranteed.

Freedom of creation

Article 76

The freedom of scientific, cultural and artistic creation shall be guaranteed.

The freedom to publish works of science and arts, scientific discoveries and technical inventions shall be guaranteed, and their authors shall be guaranteed the moral and property rights.

Science, culture and arts

Article 77

The state shall encourage and support the development of education, science, culture, arts, sport, physical and technical culture.

The state shall protect the scientific, cultural, artistic and historic values.

Protection of natural and cultural heritage

Article 78

Everyone shall be obliged to preserve natural and cultural heritage of general interest.

The state shall protect the national and cultural heritage.

5. SPECIAL – MINORITY RIGHTS

Protection of identity

Article 79

Persons belonging to minority nations and other minority national communities shall be guaranteed the rights and liberties, which they can exercise individually or collectively with others, as follows:

1) the right to exercise, protect, develop and publicly express national, ethnic, cultural and religious particularities;
2) the right to choose, use and publicly post national symbols and to celebrate national holidays;
3) the right to use their own language and alphabet in private, public and official use;
4) the right to education in their own language and alphabet in public institutions and the right to have included in the curricula the history and culture of the persons belonging to minority nations and other minority national communities;
5) the right, in the areas with significant share in the total population, to have the local self-government authorities, state and court authorities carry out the proceedings in the language of minority nations and other minority national communities;
6) the right to establish educational, cultural and religious associations, with the material support of the state;
7) the right to write and use their own name and surname also in their own language and alphabet in the official documents;
8) the right, in the areas with significant share in total population, to have traditional local terms, names of streets and settlements, as well as topographic signs written in the language of minority nations and other minority national communities;
9) the right to authentic representation in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro and in the assemblies of the local self-government units in which they represent a significant share in the population, according to the principle of affirmative action;
10) the right to proportionate representation in public services, state authorities and local self-government bodies;
11) the right to information in their own language;
12) the right to establish and maintain contacts with the citizens and associations outside of Montenegro, with whom they have common national and ethnic background, cultural and historic heritage, as well as religious beliefs;
13) the right to establish councils for the protection and improvement of special rights.

Prohibition of assimilation

Article 80

Forceful assimilation of the persons belonging to minority nations and other minority national communities shall be prohibited.

The state shall protect the persons belonging to minority nations and other minority national communities from all forms of forceful assimilation.

6. PROTECTOR OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

Article 81

The protector of human rights and liberties of Montenegro shall be independent and autonomous authority that takes measures to protect human rights and liberties.

The protector of human rights and liberties shall exercise duties on the basis of the Constitution, the law and the confirmed international agreements, observing also the principles of justice and fairness.

The protector of human rights and liberties shall be appointed for the period of six years and can be dismissed in cases envisaged by the law.

PART THREE

ORGANIZATION OF POWERS

1. PARLIAMENT OF MONTENEGRO

Responsibility

Article 82

The Parliament shall:

1) Adopt the Constitution;
2) Adopt laws;
3) Adopt other regulations and general acts (decisions, conclusions, resolutions, declarations and recommendations);
4) Proclaim the state of war and the state of emergency;
5) Adopt the budget and the final statement of the budget;
6) Adopt the National security strategy and Defense strategy;
7) Adopt the Development plan and Spatial plan of Montenegro;
8) Decide on the use of units of the Army of Montenegro in the international forces;
9) Regulate the state administration system;
10) Perform supervision of the army and security services;
11) Call for the national referendum;
12) Elect and dismiss from duty the Prime Minister and members of the Government
13) Elect and dismiss from duty the President of the Supreme Court, the President and the judges of the Constitutional Court;
14) Appoint and dismiss from duty: the Supreme State Prosecutor and State Prosecutors, the Protector of human rights and liberties (Ombudsman), the Governor of the Central Bank and members of the Council of the Central Bank of Montenegro, the President and members of the Senate of the State Audit Institution, and other officials stipulated by the law;
15) Decide on immunity rights;
16) Grant amnesty;
17) Confirm international agreements;
18) Call for public loans and decide on credits of Montenegro;
19) Decide on the use of state property above the value stipulated by the law;
20) Perform other duties stipulated by the Constitution or the law.

Composition of the Parliament

Article 83

The Parliament shall consist of the Members of the Parliament elected directly on the basis of the general and equal electoral right and by secret ballot.

The Parliament shall have 81 Members.

Mandate of the Parliament

Article 84

The mandate of the Parliament shall last for four years.

The mandate of the parliament may cease prior to the expiry of the period for which it was elected by dissolving it or reducing the mandate of the Parliament.

If the mandate of the Parliament expires during the state of war or the state of emergency, the mandate shall be extended for the period of up to 90 days upon termination of the circumstances that have caused such state.

At the proposal of the President of Montenegro, the Government or minimum 25 MP’s, the Parliament may reduce the duration of its mandate.

Rights and responsibilities of the Members of the Parliament

Article 85

Member of the Parliament shall decide and vote according to his/her own conviction.

Member of the Parliament shall have the right to perform the duty of an MP as an occupation.

Immunity

Article 86

Member of the Parliament shall enjoy immunity.

Member of the Parliament shall not be called to criminal or other account or detained because of the expressed opinion or vote in the performance of his/her duty as a Member of the Parliament.

No penal action shall be taken against and no detention shall be assigned to a Member of the Parliament, without the consent of the Parliament, unless the Member has been caught performing a criminal offense for which there is a prescribed sentence of over five years of imprisonment. 

The President of Montenegro, the Prime Minister and members of the Government, the President of the Supreme Court, the President and the judges of the Constitutional Court, and the Supreme State Prosecutor shall enjoy the same immunity as the Member of the Parliament.

Cessation of mandate of the Member of the Parliament

Article 87

Mandate of a Member of the Parliament shall cease prior to the expiry of the period for which he/she was elected:

1) By resignation;
2) If he/she was convicted by an enforceable decision of the court to an imprisonment sentence of minimum six months;
3) If he/she was deprived of the ability to work by an enforceable decision;
4) Due to cessation of Montenegrin citizenship;

Constitution of the Parliament

Article 88

The first session of the newly elected composition of the Parliament shall be called for by the Speaker of the previous composition of the Parliament and it shall be held within 15 days from the date of publication of the final results of the elections.

Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Parliament

Article 89

The Parliament shall have a Speaker and one or more Deputy Speakers, elected from its own composition for the period of four years.

Speaker of the Parliament shall represent the Parliament, call for the sessions of the Parliament and chair them, take care of the enforcement of the Rules of Procedure of the Parliament, call for elections for the President of Montenegro and perform other affairs stipulated by the Constitution, the law and the Rules of Procedure of the Parliament.

The Deputy Speaker shall substitute the Speaker of the Parliament in the performance of affairs when the Speaker is prevented to do so or when the Speaker entrusts the Deputy Speaker the duty to substitute him.

Sessions of the Parliament

Article 90

The Parliament shall work in regular and extraordinary sessions.

Regular sessions shall be held twice a year.

The first regular session shall start on the first working day in March and shall last until the end of July, and the second one shall start on the first working day in October and shall last until the end of December.

Extraordinary session shall be called for at the request of the President of Montenegro, the Government or minimum one third of the total number of Members of the Parliament.

Decision-making

Article 91

The Parliament shall decide by majority vote of the present Members of the Parliament in the session attended by over one half of the total number of Members, unless otherwise regulated by the Constitution.

With the majority vote of the total number of Members the Parliament shall adopt the laws that regulate: manner of exercise of liberties and rights of the citizens, Montenegrin citizenship, electoral system, referendum, material responsibilities of the citizens, state symbols and use of state symbols, defense and security, the army, establishment, merger and abolition of municipalities; proclaim the state of war and state of emergency; adopt the spatial plan; adopt the Rules of Procedure of the Parliament; decide on calling for the state referendum; decide on the reduction of the mandate; decide on the removal of the President of the Republic from office; elect and dismiss the Prime Minister and members of the Government and decide on the trust in the Government; elect and dismiss the President of the Supreme court, presidents and judges of the Constitutional court; appoint and dismiss the Protector of human rights and liberties.

The Parliament shall decide by a two-third majority of the total number of the Members of Parliament on the laws regulating the electoral system and property rights of foreign nationals.

The Parliament shall decide by a two-third majority of the total number of the Members of Parliament in the first round of voting and by majority of the total number of the Members of Parliament in the second round of voting on the laws regulating the manner of exercising obtained minority rights and the use of Army units in the international forces.

Dissolution of Parliament

Article 92

The Parliament shall be dissolved if it fails to elect the Government within 90 days from the date when the President of Montenegro proposed for the first time the candidate for the position of the Prime Minister.

If the Parliament does not perform its duties established by the law for a longer period of time, the Government may dissolve the Parliament upon hearing the opinion of the Speaker of the Parliament and the presidents of the caucuses in the Parliament.

The Parliament shall be dissolved by the Ordinance of the President of Montenegro.

The Parliament shall not be dissolved during the state of war or state of emergency, if the ballot procedure of no confidence in the Government has been initiated, and in the first three months from its constitution and the three months prior to the expiry of its mandate.

The President of Montenegro shall call for the elections the first day after the dissolution of the Parliament.

Proposing laws and other acts

Article 93

The right to propose laws and other acts shall be granted to the Government and the Member of the Parliament.

The right to propose laws shall also be granted to six thousand voters, through the Member of the Parliament they authorized.

The proposal to call for the national referendum may be submitted by: at least 25 Members of the Parliament, the President of Montenegro, the Government or at least 10% of the citizens with the right to vote.

Proclamation of laws

Article 94

The President of Montenegro shall proclaim the law within seven days from the day of adoption of the law, that is, within three days if the law has been adopted under a speedy procedure or send the law back to the Parliament for new decision-making process.

The President of Montenegro shall proclaim the re-adopted law.

2. PRESIDENT OF MONTENEGRO

Responsibility

Article 95

The President of Montenegro:

1) Represents Montenegro in the country and abroad;
2) Commands over the Army on the basis of the decisions of the Defense and Security Council;
3) Proclaims laws by Ordinance;
4) Calls for the elections for the Parliament;
5) Proposes to the Parliament: candidate for the Prime Minister, after consultations with the representatives of the political parties represented in the Parliament; President and judges of the Constitutional Court; Protector of human rights and liberties;
6) Appoints and revokes ambassadors and heads of other diplomatic missions of Montenegro abroad, at the proposal of the Government and after obtaining the opinion of the Parliamentary Committee responsible for international relations;
7) Accepts letters of accreditation and revocation of the foreign diplomats;
8) Awards medals and honors of Montenegro;
9) Grants amnesty;
10) Performs other tasks stipulated by the Constitution or the law.

Election

Article 96

The President of Montenegro shall be elected on the basis of a general and equal electoral right, through direct and secret ballot.

A Montenegrin citizen residing in Montenegro for minimum 10 years in the past 15 years may be elected for the President of Montenegro.

The Speaker of the Parliament shall call for the elections for the President of Montenegro.

Mandate

Article 97

The President of Montenegro shall be elected for the period of five years.

The same person may be elected the President of Montenegro maximum two times.

The President of Montenegro shall assume the duty on the date of taking an oath before the Members of the Parliament.

If the mandate of the President expires during the state of war or the state of emergency, the mandate shall be extended for maximum 90 days after the end of circumstances that have caused that state.

The President of Montenegro shall not perform any other public duty.

Cessation of mandate

Article 98

The mandate of the President of Montenegro shall end with the expiry of time for which he/she was elected, by resignation, if he/she is permanently unable to perform the duty of the President and by impeachment.

The President shall be held responsible for the violation of the Constitution.

The procedure to determine whether the President of Montenegro has violated the Constitution shall be initiated by the Parliament, at the proposal of minimum 25 Members of the Parliament.

The Parliament shall submit the proposal to initiate the procedure to the President of Montenegro for plead.

The Constitutional Court shall decide on existence or non-existence of violation of the Constitution and shall publish the decision and submit it to the Parliament and the President of Montenegro without delay.

The Parliament may impeach the President of Montenegro when the Constitutional Court finds that he/she has violated the Constitution.

Discharge of duties in case of impediment or cessation of mandate

Article 99

In case of cessation of mandate of the President of Montenegro, until the election of the new President, as well as in the case of temporary impediment of the President to discharge his/her duties, the Speaker of the Parliament shall discharge this duty.

3. GOVERNMENT OF MONTENEGRO

Responsibility

Article 100

The Government shall:

1) Manage internal and foreign policy of Montenegro;
2) Enforce laws, other regulations and general acts;
3) Adopt decrees, decisions and other acts for the enforcement of laws;
4) Sign international agreements;
5) Propose the Development plan and Spatial plan of Montenegro;
6) Propose the Budget and the Final Statement of the Budget;
7) Propose the National Security Strategy and Defense Strategy;
8) Decide on the recognition of states and establishment of diplomatic and consular relations with other states;
9) Nominate ambassadors and heads of diplomatic missions of Montenegro abroad;
10) Perform other tasks stipulated by the Constitution or the law.

Decrees with legal power

Article 101

During the state of war or the state of emergency, the Government may adopt decrees with legal power, if the Parliament is not able to meet.

The Government shall submit the decrees with legal power to the Parliament for confirmation as soon as the Parliament is able to meet.

Composition of the Government

Article 102

The Government shall consist of the Prime Minister, one or more Deputy Prime Ministers and the ministers.

The Prime Minister represents the Government and manages its work.

Election

Article 103

The President of Montenegro proposes the mandator within 30 days from the day of constitution of the Parliament.

The candidate for the position of the Prime Minister presents to the Parliament his/her program and proposes composition of the Government.

The Parliament shall decide simultaneously on the program of the mandator and the proposal for the composition of the Government.

Incompatibility of duties

Article 104

The Prime Minister and the member of the Government shall not discharge duties of a Member of the Parliament or other public duties or professionally perform some other activity.

Resignation and impeachment

Article 105

The Government and the member of the Government may resign from duty.

Resignation of the Prime Minister shall be considered the resignation of the Government.

The Prime Minister may propose to the Parliament to impeach a member of the Government.

Issue of confidence

Article 106

The Government may raise the issue of confidence in it before the Parliament.

Issue of no confidence

Article 107

The Parliament may vote no confidence in the Government.

The proposal for no confidence ballot regarding the Government may be submitted by minimum 27 Members of the Parliament.

If the Government gained confidence, the signatories of the proposal shall not submit a new proposal for no confidence ballot prior to the expiry of the 90 days deadline.

Interpellation

Article 108

The interpellation to examine certain issues regarding the work of the Government may be submitted by minimum 27 Members of the Parliament.

The interpellation shall be submitted in written form and shall be justified.

The Government shall submit an answer within thirty days from the date of receipt of interpellation.

Parliamentary investigation

Article 109

The Parliament may, at the proposal of minimum 27 Members of the Parliament, establish a Fact-finding Commission in order to collect information and facts about the events related to the work of the state authorities.

Cessation of mandate

Article 110

The Government mandate shall cease: with the expiry of the Parliament mandate, by resignation, when it loses confidence and if it fails to propose the Budget by March 31 of the budgetary year.

The Government whose mandate has ceased shall continue with its work until the election of the new composition of the Government.

The Government whose mandate has ceased shall not dissolve the Parliament.

  1. Civil service

    Article 111

The duties of the civil service shall be discharged by the ministries and other administrative authorities.

Delegation and entrusting of duties

Article 112

Individual duties of the civil service may be delegated to the local self-government or other legal person by the law.

Individual duties of the civil service may be entrusted to the local self-government or some other legal entity by the regulation of the Government.

4. LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

Manner of decision-making

Article 113

In the local self-government the decisions shall be made directly and through the freely elected representatives.

The right to local self-government shall include the right of citizens and local self-government bodies to regulate and manage certain public and other affairs, in their own responsibility and in the interest of the local population.

Form of local self-government

Article 114

The basic form of the local self-government shall be the municipality.

It shall also be possible to establish other forms of local self-government.

Municipality

Article 115

The municipality shall have the status of a legal entity.

Municipality shall adopt the Statute and General Acts.

Authorities of the municipality shall be the Assembly and the President.

Property-related powers and financing

Article 116

The Municipality shall exercise certain property related powers over the state owned assets in accordance with the law.

The Municipality shall have property.

The Municipality shall be financed from its own resources and the assets of the state.

The Municipality shall have a budget.

Autonomy

Article 117

The Municipality shall be autonomous in the performance of its duties.

The Government may dismiss the municipal Assembly, that is, discharge the President of the municipality from duty, only if the municipal assembly, that is, the President of the municipality, fails to perform the duties thereof for a period longer than six months.

5. THE COURT

Principles of the judiciary

Article 118

The court is autonomous and independent.

The court shall rule on the basis of the Constitution, laws and confirmed and published international agreements.

Establishment of court marshal and extraordinary courts shall be prohibited.

Panel of judges

Article 119

The court shall rule in panel, except when the law stipulates that an individual judge shall rule.

Lay-judges shall also participate in the trial in cases stipulated by the law.

Publicity of trial

Article 120

The hearing before the court shall be public and judgments shall be pronounced publicly.

Exceptionally, the court may exclude the public from the hearing or one part of the hearing for the reasons necessary in a democratic society, only to the extent necessary: in the interest of morality; public order; when minors are trialed; in order to protect private life of the parties; in marital disputes; in the proceedings related to guardianship and adoption; in order to protect military, business or official secret; and for the protection of security and defense of Montenegro.

Standing duty

Article 121

The judicial duty shall be permanent.

The duty of a judge shall cease at his/her own request, when he/she fulfills the requirements for age pension and if the judge has been sentenced to an unconditional imprisonment sentence.

The judge shall be released from duty if he/she has been convicted for an act that makes him unworthy for the position of a judge; performs the judicial duty in an unprofessional or negligent manner or loses permanently the ability to perform the judicial duty.   

The judge shall not be transferred or sent to another court against his/her will, except by the decision of the Judicial Council in case of reorganization of courts.

Functional immunity[1]

Article 122

The judge and the lay judge shall enjoy functional immunity.

The judge and the lay judge shall not be held responsible for the expressed opinion or vote at the time of adoption of the decision of the court, unless this represents a criminal offense.

In the proceedings initiated because of the criminal offense made in the performance of judicial duty, the judge shall not be detained without the approval of the Judicial Council.

Incompatibility of duties

Article 123

The judge shall not discharge duties of a Member of the Parliament or other public duties or professionally [2] perform some other activity.

Supreme Court

Article 124

The Supreme Court shall be the highest court in Montenegro.

The Supreme Court shall secure unified enforcement of laws by the courts.

The President of the Supreme Court shall be elected and dismissed from duty by the Parliament at the joint proposal of the President of Montenegro, the Speaker of the Parliament and the Prime Minister.

If the proposal for the election of the President of the Supreme Court fails to be submitted within 30 days, the President of the Supreme Court shall be elected at the proposal of the responsible working body of the Parliament.

Election of judges

Article 125

A Judge and a president of the court shall be elected and dismissed from duty by the Judicial Council.

The President of the court shall be elected for the period of five years.

The President of the court shall not be a member of the Judicial Council.

Judicial Council

Article 126

The Judicial Council shall be autonomous and independent authority that secures autonomy and independence of the courts and the judges.

Composition of the Judicial Council

Article 127

The Judicial Council shall have the president and nine members.

The President of the Judicial Council shall be the President of the Supreme Court.

Members of the Judicial Council shall be as follows:

1) four judges elected  and dismissed from duty by the Conference of Judges;
2) two Members of the Parliament elected and dismissed from duty by the Parliament from amongst the parliamentary majority and the opposition;
3) two renowned lawyers elected and dismissed from duty by the President of Montenegro;
4) the Minister of Justice.

The President of Montenegro shall proclaim the composition of the Judicial Council.

The mandate of the Judicial Council shall be four years.

Responsibility of the Judicial Council

Article 128

The Judicial Council shall:

1) elect and dismiss from duty a judge, a president of a court and a lay judge;
2) establish the cessation of the judicial duty;
3) determine number of judges and lay judges in a court;
4) deliberate on the activity report of the court, applications and complaints regarding the work of court and take a standpoint with regard to them;
5) decide on the immunity of a judge;
6) propose to the Government the amount of funds for the work of courts;
7) perform other duties stipulated by the law.

The Judicial Council shall decide by majority vote of all the members.

The Minster of Justice shall not vote in disciplinary proceedings against judges.

6. ARMY OF MONTENEGRO

Principles

Article 129

The Army shall defend independence, sovereignty and state territory of Montenegro, in accordance with the principles of international law regarding the use of force.

The Army shall be subject to democratic and civil control.

The members of the Army may be part of the international forces.

7. DEFENSE AND SECURITY COUNCIL

Responsibility

Article 130

The Defense and Security Council shall:

1) Make decisions on commanding over the Army;
2) Analyze and assess the security situation in Montenegro and decide to take adequate measures;
3) Appoint, promote and discharge from duty the Army officers;
4) Propose to the Parliament proclamation of the state of war and state of emergency;
5) Propose the use of Army in international forces;
6) Perform other duties stipulated by the Constitution and the law.

Composition

Article 131

The Defense and Security Council of Montenegro shall consist of the President of Montenegro, the Speaker of the Parliament and the Prime Minister.

The President of Montenegro shall act as the President of the Defense ad Security Council.

Proclamation of the state of war

Article 132

The state of war shall be proclaimed when there is direct danger of war for Montenegro, when Montenegro is attacked or war is declared against it.

If the Parliament is not able to meet, the Defense and Security Council shall adopt the decision to proclaim the state of war and submit it to the Parliament for confirmation as soon as the Parliament is able to meet.

Proclamation of the state of emergency

Article 133

The state of emergency may be proclaimed in the territory or part of the territory of Montenegro in case of the following:

1) Big natural disasters;
2) Technical-technological and environmental disasters and epidemics;
3) Greater disruption of public peace and order;
4) Violation or attempt to abolish the constitutional order.

If the Parliament is not able to meet, the Defense and Security Council shall adopt the decision to proclaim the state of emergency and submit it to the Parliament for confirmation as soon as it is able to meet.

The state of emergency shall last until the circumstances that have caused it have ceased to exist.

8. STATE PROSECUTION

Status and responsibility

Article 134

The State Prosecution shall be a unique and independent state authority that performs the affairs of prosecution of the perpetrators of criminal offenses and other punishable acts who are prosecuted ex officio.

Appointment and mandate

Article 135

The affairs of the State Prosecution shall be preformed by the State Prosecutor.

The State Prosecutor shall have one or more deputies.

The Supreme State Prosecutor and state prosecutors shall be appointed and dismissed from duty by the Parliament.

The Supreme State Prosecutor and state prosecutors shall be appointed for the period of five years.

Prosecutorial Council

Article 136

The Prosecutorial Council shall ensure the independence of state prosecutorial service and state prosecutors.

The Prosecutorial Council shall be elected and dismissed by the Parliament.

The election, mandate, competencies, organisation and methods of work of the Prosecutorial Council shall be regulated by law.

Functional immunity[3]

Article 137

State Prosecutor and Deputy State Prosecutor shall enjoy functional immunity and shall not be held responsible for the expressed opinion or decision made in the performance of the duties thereof, unless this represents a criminal offense.

Incompatibility of duties

Article 138

State Prosecutor and Deputy State Prosecutor shall not discharge duties of a Member of the Parliament or other public duties or professionally [4] perform some other activity.

PART FOUR

ECONOMIC SYSTEM

Principles

Article 139

Economic system shall be based on a free and open market, freedom of entrepreneurship and competition, independence of the economic entities and their responsibility for the obligations accepted in the legal undertakings, protection and equality of all forms of property.

Economic area and equality

Article 140

The territory of Montenegro shall represent a unique (unified) economic area.

The State shall encourage even economic development of all its areas.

It shall be prohibited to obstruct and limit free competition and to encourage unequal, monopolistic or dominant position in the market.

State property

Article 141

Assets in state property shall belong to the state of Montenegro.

Tax obligation

Article 142

The state shall be financed from taxes, duties and other revenues.

Every one shall pay taxes and other duties.

Taxes and other duties can be introduced only by law.

Central Bank of Montenegro

Article 143

The Central Bank of Montenegro shall be an independent organization, responsible for monetary and financial stability and banking system operations.

The Central Bank Council shall govern the Central Bank of Montenegro.

The Central Bank Governor shall manage the Central Bank of Montenegro.

National Audit Institution

Article 144

The National Audit Institution of Montenegro shall be an independent and supreme authority of the national audit.

The National Audit Institution shall audit the legality of and success in the management of state assets and liabilities, budgets and all the financial affairs of the entities whose sources of finance are public or created through the use of state property.

The National Audit Institution shall submit an annual report to the Parliament.

The Senate shall manage the National Audit Institution.

PART FIVE

CONSTITUTIONALITY AND LEGALITY

Conformity of legal regulations

Article 145

The law shall be in conformity with the Constitution and confirmed international agreements, and other regulations shall be in conformity with the Constitution and the law.

Publication and coming into effect of the regulations

Article 146

The law and other regulation shall be published prior to coming into effect, and shall come into effect no sooner than the eighth day from the day of publication thereof.

Exceptionally, when the reasons for such action exist and have been established in the adoption procedure, law and other regulation may come into effect no sooner than the date of publication thereof.

Prohibition of ex posto facto effect (retroactive effect)

Article 147

Law and other regulation shall not have retroactive effect.

Exceptionally, if required so by the public interest established in the process of law adoption, individual provisions of the law may have retroactive effect.

Provision of the Criminal code may have retroactive effect only if it is more lenient for the perpetrator of a criminal offense.

Legality of individual acts

Article 148

Individual legal act shall be in conformity with the law.

Final individual legal acts shall enjoy court protection.

PART SIX

CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF MONTENEGRO

Responsibility

Article 149

The Constitutional Court shall decide on the following:

1) Conformity of laws with the Constitution and confirmed and published international agreements;
2) Conformity of other regulations and general acts with the Constitution and the law;
3) Constitutional appeal due to the violation of human rights and liberties granted by the Constitution, after all other efficient legal remedies have been exhausted;
4) Whether the President of Montenegro has violated the Constitution,
5) The conflict of responsibilities between courts and other state authorities, between state authorities and local self-government authorities, and between the authorities of the local self-government units;
6) Prohibition of work of a political party or a non-governmental organization;
7) Electoral disputes and disputes related to the referendum, which are not the responsibility of other courts;
8) Conformity with the Constitution of the measures and actions of state authorities taken during the state of war or the state of emergency;
9) Performs other tasks stipulated by the Constitution.

If the regulation ceased to be valid during the procedure for the assessment of constitutionality and legality, and the consequences of its enforcement have not been recovered, the Constitutional Court shall establish whether that regulation was in conformity with the Constitution, that is, with the law during its period of validity.

The Constitutional Court shall monitor the enforcement of constitutionality and legality and shall inform the Parliament about the noted cases of unconstitutionality and illegality.

Initiation of the procedure to assess constitutionality and legality

Article 150

Any person may file an initiative to start the procedure for the assessment of constitutionality and legality.

The procedure before the Constitutional Court for the assessment of constitutionality and legality may be initiated by the court, other state authority, local self-government authority and five Members of the Parliament.

The Constitutional Court itself may also initiate the procedure for the assessment of constitutionality and legality.

During the procedure, the Constitutional Court may order to stop the enforcement of an individual act or actions that have been taken on the basis of the law, other regulation or general act, the constitutionality, i.e. legality of which is being assessed, if the enforcement thereof could cause irreparable damage.

Decision of the Constitutional Court

Article 151

The Constitutional Court shall decide by majority vote of all judges.

The decision of the Constitutional Court shall be published.

The decision of the Constitutional Court shall be generally binding and enforceable.

When necessary, the Government shall secure the enforcement of the decision of the Constitutional Court.

Cessation of validity of a regulation

Article 152

When the Constitutional Court establishes that the law is not in conformity with the Constitution and confirmed and published international agreements, that is, that other regulation is not in conformity with the Constitution and the law, that law and other regulation shall cease to be valid on the date of publication of the decision of the Constitutional Court.

The law or other regulation, i.e. their individual provisions that were found inconsistent with the Constitution or the law by the decision of the Constitutional Court, shall not be applied to the relations that have occurred prior to the publication of the Constitutional Court decision, if they have not been solved by an absolute ruling by that date.

Composition and election

Article 153

The Constitutional Court shall have seven judges.

The Constitutional Court judge shall be elected for the period of nine years.

The President of the Constitutional Court shall be elected for amongst the judges for the period of three years.

The person enjoying reputation of a renowned legal exert, with minimum 15 years of experience in this profession may be elected to the position of the Constitutional Court judge.

The President and the judge of the Constitutional Court shall not discharge duties of a Member of the Parliament or other public duties or professionally perform some other activity.

Cessation of duty

Article 154

The duty of the President and the judge of the Constitutional Court shall cease prior to the expiry of the period for which he/she was elected, at his/her own request, when he/she fulfills the requirements for age pension or if he/she was sentenced to an unconditional imprisonment sentence.

The President and the judge of the Constitutional Court shall be released from duty if he/she has been found guilty of an offense that makes him/her unworthy of the duty, if he/she permanently loses the ability to perform the duty or if he/she expresses publicly his/her political convictions.

The Constitutional Court shall establish the emergence of reasons for cessation of duty or release from duty, in its session and shall inform the Parliament of that case.

The Constitutional Court may decide that the President or the judge of the Constitutional Court that penal action has been initiated against shall not perform the duty for the period of duration of that action.

PART SEVEN

CHANGE OF THE CONSTITUTION

Proposal for the change of the constitution

Article 155

The proposal to change the Constitution may be submitted by the President of Montenegro, the Government or minimum 25 Members of the Parliament.

With the Proposal to change the Constitution it may be proposed to change or amend individual provisions of the Constitution or to adopt the new Constitution.

The Proposal to change individual provisions of the Constitution shall contain the indication of the provisions for which change is demanded and the justification.

The Proposal to change the Constitution shall be adopted in the Parliament if two thirds of the total number of Members of the Parliament vote in favor of it.

If the proposal to change the Constitution has not been adopted, the same proposal shall not be repeated prior to the expiry of one year from the day when the proposal was rejected.

Act on the change of the Constitution

Article 156

Change of the individual provisions of the Constitution shall be made through amendments.

Draft act on the change of the Constitution shall be prepared by the responsible working body of the Parliament.

Draft act on the change of the Constitution shall be adopted in the Parliament if two thirds of all the Members of the Parliaments vote in favor of it.

The Parliament shall submit the adopted Draft act on the change of the Constitution for public hearing, which shall not last less than one month.

After the end of the public hearing, the responsible working body of the Parliament shall define the Proposal of the act on the change of the Constitution<.

The act on the change of the Constitution shall be adopted in the Parliament if two thirds of all the Members of the Parliament vote in favor of it.

Change of the Constitution shall not take place during the state of war and the state of emergency.

Confirmation in the referendum

Article 157

Change of Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 13, 15, 45 and 157 shall be final if minimum three fifths of all the voters support the change in the national referendum.

PART EIGHT

TRANSITIONAL AND FINAL PROVISION

Constitutional law for the enforcement of the Constitution

Article 158

The Constitutional Law shall be adopted for the enforcement of the Constitution.

The Constitutional Law for the enforcement of the Constitution shall be adopted by the Parliament with a majority vote of all the Members of the Parliament.

The Constitutional Law shall be proclaimed and come into effect concurrently with the Constitution.

SU-SK No. 01-514/21

Podgorica, 19 October 2007

CONSTITUTIONAL PARLIAMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO

Ranko Krivokapic


[1] Functional immunity is the immunity based on the performance of duty (note by interpreter)

[2] Professionally means in this case as a paid job

[3] Functional immunity means immunity on the basis of the position/duty.

[4] Professionally means in this case as a paid job

 

©GC

Trascina file per caricare

USTAV CRNE GORE

(Podgorica, 19. oktobra 2007)

olazeći od:

odluke građana Crne Gore da žive u nezavisnoj i suverenoj državi Crnoj Gori, donesenoj na referendumu od 21. maja 2006. godine;

opredjeljenja građana Crne Gore da žive u državi u kojoj su osnovne vrijednosti: sloboda, mir, tolerancija, poštovanje ljudskih prava i sloboda, multikulturalnost, demokratija i vladavina prava;

odlučnosti da smo kao slobodni i ravnopravni građani, pripadnici naroda i nacionalnih manjina koji žive u Crnoj Gori: Crnogorci, Srbi, Bošnjaci, Albanci, Muslimani, Hrvati i drugi, privrženi demokratskoj i građanskoj Crnoj Gori;

uvjerenja da je država odgovorna za očuvanje prirode, zdrave životne sredine, održivog razvoja, uravnoteženog razvoja svih njenih područja i uspostavljanja socijalne pravde;

privrženosti ravnopravnoj saradnji sa drugim narodima i državama i evropskim i evro-atlantskim integracijama,

Ustavotvorna skupština Republike Crne Gore, na trećoj sjednici drugog redovnog zasijedanja u 2007. godini, dana 19. oktobra 2007. godine,  donosi

USTAV CRNE GORE

DIO PRVI

OSNOVNE ODREDBE

Država

Član 1

Crna Gora je nezavisna i suverena država, republikanskog oblika vladavine.

Crna Gora je građanska, demokratska, ekološka i država socijalne pravde, zasnovana na vladavini prava.

Suverenost

Član 2

Nosilac  suverenosti je građanin koji ima crnogorsko državljanstvo.

Građanin vlast ostvaruje neposredno i preko slobodno izabranih predstavnika.

Ne može se uspostaviti niti priznati vlast koja ne proističe iz slobodno izražene volje građana na demokratskim izborima, u skladu sa zakonom.

Državna teritorija

Član 3

Teritorija Crne Gore je jedinstvena i neotuđiva.

Državni simboli

Član 4

Crna Gora ima grb, zastavu i himnu.

Grb Crne Gore je zlatni dvoglavi orao sa lavom na prsima.

Zastava Crne Gore je crvene boje sa grbom na sredini i zlatnim obrubom.

Himna Crne Gore je »Oj svijetla majska zoro«.

Glavni grad i Prijestonica

Član 5

Glavni grad Crne Gore je Podgorica.

Prijestonica Crne Gore je Cetinje.

Ljudska prava i slobode

Član 6

Crna Gora jemči i štiti prava i slobode.

Prava i slobode su nepovredivi.

Svako je obavezan da poštuje prava i slobode drugih.

Zabrana izazivanja mržnje

Član 7

Zabranjeno je izazivanje ili podsticanje mržnje ili netrpeljivosti po bilo kom osnovu.

Zabrana diskriminacije

Član 8

Zabranjena je svaka neposredna ili posredna diskriminacija, po bilo kom osnovu.

Neće se smatrati diskriminacijom propisi i uvođenje posebnih mjera koji su usmjereni na stvaranje uslova za ostvarivanje nacionalne, rodne i ukupne ravnopravnosti i zaštite lica koja su po bilo kom osnovu u nejednakom položaju.

Posebne mjere se mogu primjenjivati samo dok se ne ostvare ciljevi zbog kojih su preduzete.

Pravni poredak

Član 9

Potvrđeni i objavljeni međunarodni ugovori i opšteprihvaćena pravila međunarodnog prava sastavni su dio unutrašnjeg pravnog poretka, imaju primat nad domaćim zakonodavstvom i neposredno se primjenjuju kada odnose uređuju drukčije od unutrašnjeg zakonodavstva.

Granice sloboda

Član 10

U Crnoj Gori slobodno je sve što Ustavom i zakonom nije zabranjeno.

Svako je obavezan da se pridržava Ustava i zakona.

Podjela vlasti

Član 11

Vlast je uređena po načelu podjele vlasti na: zakonodavnu, izvršnu i sudsku.

Zakonodavnu vlast vrši Skupština, izvršnu vlast vrši Vlada, a sudsku sud.

Vlast je ograničena Ustavom i zakonom.

Odnos vlasti počiva na ravnoteži i međusobnoj kontroli.

Crnu Goru predstavlja predsjednik Crne Gore.

Ustavnost i zakonitost štiti Ustavni sud.

Vojska i bezbjednosne službe su pod demokratskom i civilnom kontrolom.

Crnogorsko državljanstvo

Član 12

U Crnoj Gori postoji crnogorsko državljanstvo.

Crna Gora štiti prava i interese crnogorskih državljana.

Crnogorski državljanin ne može biti prognan niti izručen drugoj državi, osim u skladu sa međunarodnim obavezama Crne Gore.

Jezik  i pismo

Član 13

Službeni jezik u Crnoj Gori je crnogorski jezik.

Ćirilično i latinično pismo su ravnopravni.

U službenoj upotrebi su i srpski, bosanski, albanski i hrvatski jezik.   

Odvojenost vjerskih zajednica od države

Član 14

Vjerske zajednice odvojene su od države.

Vjerske zajednice su ravnopravne i slobodne u vršenju vjerskih obreda i vjerskih poslova.

Odnos sa drugim državama i međunarodnim organizacijama

Član 15

Crna Gora, na principima i pravilima međunarodnog prava, sarađuje i razvija prijateljske odnose sa drugim državama, regionalnim i međunarodnim organizacijama.

Crna Gora može stupati u međunarodne organizacije.

Skupština odlučuje o načinu pristupanja Evropskoj Uniji.

Crna Gora ne može stupiti u savez sa drugom državom kojim gubi nezavi-snost i puni međunarodni subjektivitet.

Zakonodavstvo

Član 16

Zakonom se, u skladu sa Ustavom, uređuju:

1) način ostvarivanja ljudskih prava i sloboda, kada je to neophodno za njihovo ostvarivanje;

2) način ostvarivanja posebnih manjinskih prava;

3) način osnivanja, organizacija i nadležnost organa vlasti i postupak pred tim organima, ako je to neophodno za njihovo funkcionisanje;

4) sistem lokalne samouprave;

5) druga pitanja od interesa za Crnu Goru.

DIO DRUGI

LJUDSKA PRAVA I SLOBODE

1. ZAJEDNIČKE ODREDBE

Osnov i jednakost

Član 17

Prava i slobode ostvaruju se na osnovu Ustava i potvrđenih međunarodnih sporazuma.

Svi su pred zakonom jednaki, bez obzira na bilo kakvu posebnost ili lično svojstvo.

Rodna ravnopravnost

Član 18

Država jemči ravnopravnost žene i muškarca i razvija politiku jednakih mogućnosti.

Zaštita

Član 19

Svako ima pravo na jednaku zaštitu svojih prava i sloboda.

Pravni lijek

Član 20

Svako ima pravo na pravni lijek protiv odluke kojom se odlučuje o njegovom pravu ili na zakonom zasnovanom interesu.

Pravna pomoć

Član 21

Svako ima pravo na pravnu pomoć.

Pravnu pomoć pruža advokatura, kao nezavisna i samostalna profesija, i druge službe.

Pravna pomoć može biti besplatna, u skladu sa zakonom.

Pravo na lokalnu samoupravu

Član 22

Jemči se pravo na lokalnu samoupravu.

Životna sredina

Član 23

Svako ima pravo na zdravu životnu sredinu.

Svako ima pravo na blagovremeno i potpuno obavještavanje o stanju životne sredine, na mogućnost uticaja prilikom odlučivanja o pitanjima od značaja za životnu sredinu i na pravnu zaštitu ovih prava.

Svako je, a posebno država, obavezan da čuva i unapređuje životnu sredinu.

Ograničenje ljudskih prava i sloboda

Član 24

Zajemčena ljudska prava i slobode mogu se ograničiti samo zakonom, u obimu koji dopušta Ustav u mjeri koja je neophodna da bi se u otvorenom i slobodnom demokratskom društvu zadovoljila svrha zbog koje je ograničenje dozvoljeno.

Ograničenja se ne smiju uvoditi u druge svrhe osim onih radi kojih su propisana.

Privremeno ograničenje prava i sloboda

Član 25

Za vrijeme proglašenog ratnog ili vanrednog stanja može se ograničiti ostvarivanje pojedinih ljudskih prava i sloboda, u obimu u kojem je to neophodno.

Ograničenje se ne smije činiti po osnovu pola, nacionalnosti, rase, vjere, jezika, etničkog ili društvenog porijekla, političkog ili drugog uvjerenja, imovnog stanja ili bilo kakvog drugog ličnog svojstva.

Ne mogu se ograničiti prava na: život; pravni lijek i pravnu pomoć; dostojanstvo i poštovanje ličnosti; pravično i javno suđenje i načelo zakonitosti; pretpostavku nevinosti; odbranu; naknadu štete za nezakonito ili neosnovano lišenje slobode i neosnovanu osudu; slobodu misli, savjesti i vjeroispovijesti; zaključenje braka.

Ne mogu se ukidati zabrane: izazivanja ili podsticanja mržnje ili netrpeljivosti; diskriminacije; ponovnog suđenja i osude za isto krivično djelo; nasilne asimilacije.

Mjere ograničenja mogu važiti najduže dok traje ratno ili vanredno stanje.

2. LIČNA PRAVA I  SLOBODE

Zabrana smrtne kazne

Član 26

U Crnoj Gori zabranjena je smrtna kazna.

Biomedicina

Član 27

Jamči se pravo čovjeka i dostojanstvo ljudskog bića u pogledu primjene biologije i medicine.

Zabranjena je svaka intervencija usmjerena na stvaranje ljudskog bića koje je genetski identično sa drugim ljudskim bićem, živim ili mrtvim.

Zabranjeno je na ljudskom biću, bez njegove dozvole, vršiti medicinske i druge oglede.

Dostojanstvo i nepovredivost ličnosti

Član 28

Jemči se dostojanstvo i sigurnost čovjeka.

Jemči se nepovredivost fizičkog i psihičkog integriteta čovjeka, njegove privatnosti i ličnih prava.

Niko ne smije biti podvrgnut mučenju ili nečovječnom ili ponižavajućem postupanju.

Niko se ne smije držati u ropstvu ili ropskom položaju.

Lišenje slobode

Član 29

Svako ima pravo na ličnu slobodu.

Lišavanje slobode dopušteno je samo iz razloga i u postupku koji je predviđen zakonom.

Lice lišeno slobode mora odmah biti obaviješteno na svom jeziku ili jeziku koji razumije o razlozima lišenja slobode.

Lice lišeno slobode istovremeno mora biti upoznato da nije dužno ništa da izjavi.

Na zahtjev lica lišenog slobode, organ je dužan da o lišenju slobode odmah obavijesti lice koje lišeni slobode sâm odredi.

Lice lišeno slobode ima pravo da njegovom saslušanju prisustvuje branilac koga izabere.

Nezakonito lišavanje slobode je kažnjivo.

Pritvor

Član 30

Lice za koje postoji osnovana sumnja da je izvršilo krivično djelo može, na osnovu odluke nadležnog suda, biti pritvoreno i zadržano u pritvoru samo ako je to neophodno radi vođenja krivičnog postupka.

Pritvorenom licu mora se uručiti obrazloženo rješenje u času pritvaranja ili najkasnije u roku od 24 časa od pritvaranja.

Protiv rješenja o pritvoru pritvoreno lice ima pravo žalbe, o kojoj sud odlučuje u roku od 48 časova.

Trajanje pritvora mora biti svedeno na najkraće moguće vrijeme.

Pritvor može trajati po odluci prvostepenog suda najduže tri mjeseca od dana pritvaranja, a odlukom višeg suda, može se produžiti za još tri mjeseca.

Ako se do isteka tih rokova ne podigne optužnica, okrivljeni se pušta na slobodu.

Pritvor maloljetnika ne može trajati duže od 60 dana.

Poštovanje ličnosti

Član 31

Jemči se poštovanje ljudske ličnosti i dostojanstva u krivičnom ili drugom postupku, u slučaju lišenja ili  ograničenja slobode i za vrijeme izvršavanja kazne.

Zabranjeno je i kažnjivo svako nasilje, nečovječno ili ponižavajuće postu-panje  nad licem koje je lišeno slobode ili mu je sloboda ograničena, kao  i iznu-đivanje priznanja i izjava.

Pravično i javno suđenje

Član 32

Svako ima pravo na pravično i javno suđenje u razumnom roku pred nezavisnim, nepristrasnim i zakonom ustanovljenim sudom.

Načelo zakonitosti

Član 33

Niko ne može biti kažnjen za djelo koje, prije nego što je učinjeno, nije bilo propisano zakonom  kao kažnjivo djelo, niti mu se može izreći kazna koja za to djelo nije bila predviđena.

Blaži zakon

Član 34

Krivična i druga kažnjiva djela utvrđuju se i kazne za njih izriču po zakonu  koji je važio u vrijeme izvršenja djela, osim ako je novi zakon  blaži za učinioca.

Pretpostavka nevinosti

Član 35

Svako se smatra nevinim dok se njegova krivica ne utvrdi pravosnažnom odlukom suda.

Okrivljeni nije obavezan da dokazuje svoju nevinost.

Sumnju u pogledu krivice sud je obavezan da tumači u korist okrivljenog.

Ne bis in idem

Član 36

Nikome se ne može ponovo suditi niti može biti ponovo osuđen za isto kažnjivo djelo.

Pravo na odbranu

Član 37

Svakome se jemči pravo na odbranu, a posebno: da na jeziku koji razumije bude upoznat sa optužbom protiv sebe; da ima dovoljno vremena za pripremanje odbrane i da se brani lično ili putem branioca kojega sâm izabere.

Naknada štete zbog nezakonitog postupanja

Član 38

Lice nezakonito ili neosnovano lišeno slobode ili neosnovano osuđeno ima pravo na naknadu štete od države.

Kretanje i nastanjivanje

Član 39

Jemči se pravo na slobodu kretanja i nastanjivanja, kao i pravo napuštanja Crne Gore.

Sloboda kretanja, nastanjivanja i napuštanja Crne Gore može se ograničiti ako je to potrebno za vođenje krivičnog postupka, sprječavanja širenja zaraznih bolesti ili iz razloga bezbjednosti Crne Gore.

Kretanje i boravak stranaca uređuje se zakonom.

Pravo na privatnost

Član 40

Svako ima pravo na poštovanje privatnog i porodičnog života.

Nepovredivost stana

Član 41

Stan je nepovrediv.

Niko ne može bez odluke suda ući u stan ili druge prostorije protiv volje njegovog držaoca i u njima vršiti pretres.

Pretres se vrši u prisustvu dva svjedoka.

Službeno lice može ući u tuđi stan ili druge prostorije i bez odluke suda i vršiti pretres bez prisustva svjedoka ako je to neophodno radi sprječavanja vršenja krivičnog djela, neposrednog hvatanja učinioca krivičnog djela ili radi spašavanja ljudi i imovine.

Tajnost pisama

Član 42

Nepovrediva je tajnost pisama, telefonskih razgovora i drugih sredstava opštenja.

Od načela nepovredivosti tajnosti pisama, telefonskih razgovora i drugih sredstava opštenja može se odstupiti samo na osnovu odluke suda, ako je to neophodno za vođenje krivičnog postupka ili iz razloga bezbjednosti Crne Gore.

Podaci o ličnosti

Član 43

Jemči se zaštita podataka o ličnosti.

Zabranjena je upotreba podataka o ličnosti van namjene za koju su prikupljeni.

Svako ima pravo da bude upoznat sa podacima koji su prikupljeni o njegovoj ličnosti i pravo na sudsku zaštitu u slučaju zloupotrebe.

Pravo azila

Član 44

Stranac koji osnovano strahuje od progona zbog svoje rase, jezika, vjere ili pripadnosti nekoj naciji ili grupi ili zbog političkih uvjerenja može da traži azil u Crnoj Gori.

Stranac se ne može protjerati iz Crne Gore tamo gdje mu, zbog rase, vjere, jezika ili nacionalne pripadnosti, prijeti osuda na smrtnu kaznu, mučenje, neljudsko ponižavanje, progon ili ozbiljno kršenje prava koja jemči ovaj Ustav.

Stranac se može protjerati iz Crne Gore samo na osnovu odluke nadležnog organa i u zakonom propisanom postupku.

3. POLITIČKA PRAVA I  SLOBODE

Biračko pravo

Član 45

Pravo da bira i da bude biran ima državljanin Crne Gore koji je navršio 18 godina života i ima najmanje dvije godine prebivališta u Crnoj Gori.

Biračko pravo se ostvaruje na izborima.

Biračko pravo je opšte i jednako.

Izbori su slobodni i neposredni, a glasanje je  tajno.

Sloboda misli, savjesti i vjeroispovijesti

Član 46

Svakome se jemči pravo na slobodu misli, savjesti i vjeroispovijesti, kao i pravo da promijeni vjeru ili uvjerenje i slobodu da, sâm ili u zajednici sa drugima, javno ili privatno, ispoljava vjeru ili uvjerenje molitvom, propovijedima, običajima ili obredom.

Niko nije obavezan da se izjašnjava o svojim vjerskim i drugim uvjerenjima.

Sloboda ispoljavanja vjerskih uvjerenja može se ograničiti samo ako je to neophodno radi zaštite života i zdravlja ljudi, javnog reda i mira, kao i ostalih prava zajemčenih Ustavom.

Sloboda izražavanja

Član 47

Svako ima pravo na slobodu izražavanja govorom, pisanom riječju, slikom ili na drugi način.

Pravo na slobodu izražavanja može se ograničiti samo pravom drugoga na dostojanstvo, ugled i čast i ako se ugrožava javni moral ili bezbjednost Crne Gore.

Prigovor savjesti

Član 48

Svako ima  pravo na prigovor savjesti.

Niko nije dužan da protivno svojoj vjeri ili ubjeđenju ispunjava vojnu ili drugu obavezu koja uključuje upotrebu oružja.

Sloboda štampe

Član 49

Jemči se sloboda štampe i drugih vidova javnog obavještavanja.

Jemči se pravo da se, bez odobrenja, osnivaju novine i druga sredstva javnog informisanja, uz upis kod nadležnog organa.

Jemči se pravo na odgovor i pravo na  ispravku neistinite, nepotpune ili netačno prenijete informacije kojom je povrijeđeno nečije pravo ili interes i  pravo na naknadu štete prouzrokovane objavljivanjem netačnog podatka ili obavje-štenja.

Zabrana cenzure

Član 50

U  Crnoj Gori nema cenzure.

Nadležni sud može spriječiti širenje informacija i ideja putem sredstava javnog obavještavanja samo ako je to neophodno radi: sprječavanja pozivanja na nasilno rušenje Ustavom utvrđenog poretka; očuvanja teritorijalnog integriteta Crne Gore; sprječavanja propagiranja rata ili podstrekavanja na nasilje ili vršenjekrivičnog djela; sprječavanja propagiranja rasne, nacionalne i vjerske mržnje ili  diskriminacije.

Pristup informaciji

Član 51

Svako ima pravo pristupa informacijama u posjedu državnih organa i organizacija  koje vrše javna ovlašćenja.

Pravo pristupa informacijama može se ograničiti ako je to u interesu: zaštite života; javnog zdravlja; morala i privatnosti; vođenja krivičnog postupka; bezbjednosti i odbrane Crne Gore; spoljne, monetarne i ekonomske politike.

Sloboda okupljanja

Član 52

Jemči se sloboda mirnog okupljanja, bez odobrenja, uz prethodnu prijavu nadležnom organu.

Sloboda okupljanja može se privremeno ograničiti odlukom nadležnog organa radi sprječavanja nereda ili vršenja krivičnog djela, ugrožavanja zdravlja, morala ili radi bezbjednosti ljudi i imovine, u skladu sa zakonom.

Sloboda udruživanja

Član 53

Jemči se sloboda političkog, sindikalnog i drugog udruživanja i djelovanja, bez odobrenja, uz upis kod nadležnog organa.

Niko se ne može prisiliti da bude član nekog udruženja.

Država pomaže politička i druga udruženja, kada za to postoji javni interes.

Zabrana organizovanja

Član 54

Zabranjeno je političko organizovanje u državnim organima.

Sudija Ustavnog suda, sudija, državni tužilac i njegov zamjenik, zaštitnik ljudskih prava i sloboda, član Savjeta Centralne banke, član Senata Državne revizorske institucije, profesionalni pripadnik Vojske, Policije i drugih službi bezbjednosti ne može biti član političke organizacije.

Zabranjeno je političko organizovanje i djelovanje stranaca i političkih organizacija čije je sjedište van Crne Gore.

Zabrana djelovanja i osnivanja

Član 55

Zabranjeno je djelovanje političkih i drugih organizacija koje je usmjereno na nasilno rušenje ustavnog poretka, narušavanje teritorijalne cjelokupnosti Crne

Gore, kršenje zajemčenih sloboda i prava ili izazivanje nacionalne, rasne, vjerske i druge mržnje i netrpeljivosti.

Zabranjeno je osnivanje tajnih subverzivnih organizacija i neregularnih vojski.

Pravo obraćanja međunarodnim organizacijama

Član 56

Svako ima pravo obraćanja međunarodnim organizacijama radi zaštite svojih prava i sloboda zajemčenih Ustavom.

Pravo obraćanja

Član 57

Svako ima pravo da se, pojedinačno ili zajedno sa drugim, obrati državnom organu ili organizaciji koja vrši javna ovlašćenja i da dobije odgovor.

Niko ne može da bude pozvan na odgovornost, niti da trpi druge štetne posljedice zbog stavova iznijetih u obraćanju, osim ako je time učinio krivično djelo.

4. EKONOMSKA, SOCIJALNA I KULTURNA PRAVA I SLOBODE

Svojina

Član 58

Jemči se pravo svojine.

Niko ne može biti lišen ili ograničen prava svojine, osim kada to zahtijeva javni interes, uz pravičnu naknadu.

Prirodna bogatstva i dobra u opštoj upotrebi su u državnoj svojini.

Preduzetništvo

Član 59

Jemči se sloboda preduzetništva.

Sloboda preduzetništva može se ograničiti samo ako je to neophodno radi zaštite zdravlja ljudi, životne sredine, prirodnih bogatstava, kulturne baštine ili bezbjednosti i odbrane Crne Gore.

Pravo nasljeđivanja

Član 60

Jemči se pravo nasljeđivanja.

Prava stranaca

Član 61

Strano lice može biti subjekat prava svojine u skladu sa zakonom.

Pravo na rad

Član 62

Svako ima pravo na rad, na slobodan izbor zanimanja i zapošljavanja, na pravične i humane uslove rada i na zaštitu za vrijeme  nezaposlenosti.

Zabrana prinudnog rada

Član 63

Zabranjen je prinudni rad.

Prinudnim radom ne smatra se: rad uobičajen u sklopu izdržavanja kazne lišenja slobode; obavljanje službe vojne prirode ili službe koja se zahtijeva umjesto nje; rad koji se zahtijeva u slučaju krize ili nesreće koja prijeti ljudskim životima ili imovini.

Prava zaposlenih

Član 64

Zaposleni imaju pravo na odgovarajuću zaradu.

Zaposleni imaju pravo na ograničeno radno vrijeme i plaćeni odmor.

Zaposleni imaju pravo na zaštitu na radu.

Omladina, žene i invalidi uživaju posebnu zaštitu na radu.

Socijalni savjet

Član 65

Socijalni položaj zaposlenih usklađuje se u Socijalnom savjetu.

Socijalni savjet čine predstavnici sindikata, poslodavaca i Vlade.

Štrajk

Član 66

Zaposleni imaju pravo na štrajk.

Pravo na štrajk može se ograničiti zaposlenim u Vojsci, policiji, državnim organima i javnoj službi u cilju zaštite javnog interesa, u skladu sa zakonom.

Socijalno osiguranje

Član 67

Socijalno osiguranje zaposlenih je obavezno.

Država obezbjeđuje materijalnu sigurnost licu koje je nesposobno za rad i nema sredstva za život.

Zaštita lica sa  invaliditetom

Član 68

Jemči se posebna zaštita lica sa  invaliditetom.

Zdravstvena zaštita

Član 69

Svako ima pravo na zdravstvenu zaštitu.

Dijete, trudnica, staro lice i lice sa invaliditetom imaju pravo na zdravstvenu zaštitu iz javnih prihoda, ako to pravo ne ostvaruju po nekom drugom osnovu.

Zaštita potrošača

Član 70

Država štiti potrošača.

Zabranjene su radnje kojima se narušava zdravlje, bezbjednost i privatnost potrošača.

Brak

Član 71

Brak se može zaključiti samo uz slobodan pristanak žene i muškarca.

Brak se zasniva na ravnopravnosti supružnika.

Porodica

Član 72

Porodica uživa posebnu zaštitu.

Roditelji su obavezni da brinu o djeci, da ih vaspitavaju i školuju.

Djeca su obavezna da se staraju o svojim roditeljima kojima je potrebna pomoć.

Djeca rođena van braka imaju ista prava i obaveze kao i djeca rođena u braku.

Zaštita majke i djeteta

Član 73

Majka i dijete uživaju posebnu zaštitu.

Država stvara uslove kojima se podstiče rađanje djece.

Prava djeteta

Član 74

Dijete uživa prava i slobode primjereno njegovom uzrastu i zrelosti.

Djetetu se jemči posebna zaštita od psihičkog, fizičkog, ekonomskog i svakog drugog iskorišćavanja ili zloupotrebe.

Školovanje

Član 75

Jemči se pravo na školovanje pod jednakim uslovima.

Osnovno školovanje je obavezno i besplatno.

Jemči se autonomija univerziteta, visokoškolskih i naučnih ustanova.

Sloboda stvaralaštva

Član 76

Jemči se sloboda naučnog, kulturnog i umjetničkog stvaralaštva.

Jemči se sloboda objavljivanja naučnih  i umjetničkih djela, naučnih otkrića i tehničkih izuma, a njihovim stvaraocima moralna i imovinska prava.

Nauka, kultura i umjetnost

Član 77

Država podstiče i pomaže razvoj prosvjete, nauke, kulture, umjetnosti, sporta, fizičke i tehničke kulture.

Država štiti naučne, kulturne, umjetničke i istorijske vrijednosti.

Zaštita prirodne i kulturne baštine

Član 78

Svako je dužan da čuva prirodnu i kulturnu baštinu od opšteg interesa.

Država štiti prirodnu i kulturnu baštinu.

5. POSEBNA - MANJINSKA PRAVA

Zaštita identiteta

Član 79

Pripadnicima manjinskih naroda i drugih manjinskih nacionalnih zajednica jemče se prava i slobode koja mogu koristiti pojedinačno i u zajednici sa drugima:

1) na izražavanje, čuvanje, razvijanje i javno ispoljavanje nacionalne, etničke,  kulturne i vjerske posebnosti;

2) na izbor, upotrebu i javno isticanje nacionalnih simbola i obilježavanje nacionalnih praznika;

3) na upotrebu svog  jezika i pisma u privatnoj, javnoj i službenoj upotrebi;

4) na školovanje na svom jeziku i pismu u državnim ustanovama i da nastavni programi obuhvataju i istoriju i kulturu pripadnika manjinskih naroda i drugih manjinskih nacionalnih zajednica;

5) da u sredinama sa značajnim učešćem u stanovništvu organi lokalne samouprave, državni i sudski organi vode postupak i na jeziku manjinskih naroda i drugih manjinskih nacionalnih zajednica;

6) da osnivaju prosvjetna, kulturna i vjerska udruženja uz materijalnu pomoć države;

7) da sopstveno ime i prezime upisuju i koriste na svom jeziku i pismu u službenim ispravama;

8) da u sredinama sa značajnim učešćem u stanovništvu tradicionalni lokalni nazivi, imena ulica i naselja, kao i topografske oznake budu ispisani i na jeziku manjinskih naroda i drugih manjinskih nacionalnih zajednica;

9) na autentičnu zastupljenost u Skupštini Crne Gore i skupštinama jedinica lokalne samouprave u kojima čine značajan dio stanovništva, shodno principu  afirmativne akcije;

10) na srazmjernu zastupljenost u javnim službama, organima državne vlasti i lokalne samouprave;

11) na informisanje na svom jeziku;

12) da uspostavljaju i održavaju kontakte sa građanima i udruženjima van Crne Gore sa kojima imaju zajedničko nacionalno i etničko porijeklo, kulturno- istorijsko nasljeđe, kao i vjerska ubjeđenja;

13) na osnivanje savjeta za zaštitu i unapređenje posebnih prava.

Zabrana asimilacije

Član 80

Zabranjena je nasilna asimilacija pripadnika manjinskih naroda i drugih manjinskih nacionalnih zajednica.

Država je dužna da zaštiti pripadnike manjinskih naroda i drugih manjinskih nacionalnih zajednica od svih oblika nasilne asimilacije.

6. ZAŠTITNIK  LJUDSKIH  PRAVA I SLOBODA

Član 81

Zaštitnik ljudskih prava i sloboda Crne Gore je samostalan i nezavisan organ koji preduzima mjere za zaštitu ljudskih prava i sloboda.

Zaštitnik ljudskih prava i sloboda vrši funkciju na osnovu Ustava, zakona i potvrđenih međunarodnih ugovora,  pridržavajući se i načela pravde i pravičnosti.

Zaštitnik ljudskih prava i sloboda imenuje se na vrijeme od šest godina i može biti razriješen u slučajevima predviđenim zakonom.

DIO TREĆI

UREĐENJE VLASTI

1. SKUPŠTINA CRNE GORE

Nadležnost

Član 82

Skupština:

1) donosi ustav;

2) donosi zakone;

3) donosi druge propise i opšte akte (odluke, zaključke, rezolucije, deklara-cije i preporuke) ;

4) proglašava ratno i vanredno stanje;

5) donosi budžet i  završni račun budžeta;

6) donosi strategiju  nacionalne bezbjednosti i strategiju odbrane;

7) donosi plan razvoja i prostorni plan Crne Gore;

8) odlučuje o upotrebi jedinica Vojske Crne Gore u međunarodnim snagama;

9) uređuje sistem državne uprave;

10) vrši nadzor nad Vojskom i bezbjednosnim službama;

11) raspisuje državni  referendum;

12) bira i razrješava predsjednika i članove Vlade;

13) bira i razrješava predsjednika Vrhovnog suda, predsjednika i sudije Ustavnog suda;

14) imenuje i razrješava: vrhovnog državnog tužioca i državne tužioce, zaštitnika ljudskih prava i sloboda; guvernera Centralne banke i članove Savjeta Centralne banke Crne Gore; predsjednika i članove Senata Državne revizorske institucije i druge nosioce funkcija određene zakonom;

15) odlučuje o imunitetskim pravima;

16) daje amnestiju;

17) potvrđuje međunarodne ugovore;

18) raspisuje javne zajmove i odlučuje o zaduživanju Crne Gore;

19) odlučuje o raspolaganju državnom imovinom iznad vrijednosti određene zakonom;

20) vrši i druge poslove utvrđene  Ustavom ili zakonom.

Sastav Skupštine

Član 83

Skupštinu čine poslanici koji se biraju neposredno, na osnovu opšteg i jednakog biračkog prava i tajnim glasanjem.

Skupština ima  81  poslanika.

Mandat Skupštine

Član 84

Mandat Skupštine traje četiri godine.

Skupštini može prestati mandat prije vremena na koje je izabrana raspuštanjem ili skraćenjem mandata Skupštine.

Ako mandat Skupštine ističe za vrijeme  ratnog ili vanrednog stanja, mandat joj se produžava najduže 90 dana po prestanku okolnosti koje su izazvale to stanje.

Na predlog predsjednika Crne Gore, Vlade ili najmanje 25 poslanika, Skupština može skratiti mandat.

Prava i dužnosti  poslanika

Član 85

Poslanik se opredjeljuje i glasa po sopstvenom uvjerenju.

Poslanik ima pravo da poslaničku funkciju obavlja profesionalno.

Imunitet

Član 86

Poslanik uživa imunitet.

Poslanik ne može biti pozvan na krivičnu ili drugu odgovornost ili pritvoren za izraženo mišljenje ili glasanje u vršenju svoje poslaničke funkcije.

Protiv poslanika ne može se pokrenuti krivični postupak, niti odrediti  pritvor, bez odobrenja Skupštine, osim ako je zatečen u vršenju krivičnog djela za koje je propisana kazna  u trajanju  dužem od pet godina zatvora.

Imunitet, kao i poslanik, uživaju: predsjednik Crne Gore, predsjednik i članovi Vlade, predsjednik Vrhovnog suda, predsjednik i sudije Ustavnog suda, vrhovni državni tužilac .

Prestanak mandata poslanika

Član 87

Poslaniku prestaje mandat prije isteka vremena na koje je biran:

1) podnošenjem ostavke;

2) ako je pravosnažnom odlukom suda osuđen na bezuslovnu kaznu zatvora u trajanju od najmanje šest mjeseci;

3) ako je pravosnažnom odlukom lišen poslovne sposobnosti;

4) prestankom crnogorskog državljanstva.

Konstituisanje Skupštine

Član 88

Prvu sjednicu novoizabranog sastava Skupštine saziva predsjednik Skupštine prethodnog saziva i održava se najkasnije 15 dana od dana objavljivanja konačnih rezultata izbora.

Predsjednik i potpredsjednik Skupštine

Član 89

Skupština ima predsjednika i jednog ili više potpredsjednika, koje bira iz svog sastava na vrijeme od četiri godine.

Predsjednik Skupštine predstavlja Skupštinu, saziva Skupštinu na  sjednice i predsjedava im, stara se o primjeni poslovnika Skupštine, raspisuje izbore za predsjednika Crne Gore  i vrši druge poslove utvrđene Ustavom, zakonom i poslovnikom Skupštine.

Potpredsjednik zamjenjuje predsjednika Skupštine u vršenju poslova kada je on spriječen ili kada mu on povjeri da ga zamjenjuje.

Zasijedanje Skupštine

Član 90

Skupština radi na redovnim i vanrednim zasijedanjima.

Redovno zasijedanje održava se dva puta godišnje.

Prvo redovno zasijedanje počinje prvog radnog dana u martu i traje do kraja jula, a drugo prvog radnog dana u oktobru i traje do kraja decembra.

Vanredno zasijedanje saziva se na zahtjev predsjednika Crne Gore, Vlade ili najmanje trećine ukupnog broja poslanika.

Odlučivanje

Član 91

Skupština odlučuje većinom glasova prisutnih poslanika na sjednici kojoj prisustvuje više od polovine svih poslanika, ako Ustavom nije drukčije određeno.

Većinom glasova svih poslanika Skupština donosi zakone kojima se  uređuju: način ostvarivanja sloboda i prava građana, crnogorsko državljanstvo,  referendum, materijalne obaveze građana, državni simboli i upotreba i korišćenje državnih simbola,  odbrana i bezbjednost, vojska, osnivanje, spajanje i ukidanje opština; proglašava ratno i vanredno stanje; donosi prostorni plan; donosi poslovnik Skupštine; odlučuje o raspisivanju državnog referenduma; odlučuje o skraćenju mandata; odlučuje o razrješenju predsjednika Republike; bira i razrješava predsjednika  i članove Vlade i odlučuje o povjerenju Vladi; bira i razrješava predsjednika Vrhovnog suda, predsjednike i sudije Ustavnog suda; imenuje i razrješava zaštitnika ljudskih prava i sloboda.

Skupština odlučuje dvotrećinskom većinom glasova svih poslanika o zakonima kojima se uređuje izborni sistem i imovinska prava stranaca.

U prvom glasanju dvotrećinskom većinom i u drugom glasanju većinom svih poslanika najranije nakon tri mjeseca, Skupština odlučuje o zakonima kojima se uređuje način ostvarivanja stečenih manjinskih prava i upotreba jedinica Vojske u međunarodnim snagama.

Raspuštanje Skupštine

Član 92

Skupština se raspušta, ako ne izabere Vladu u roku od 90 dana od dana kada predsjednik Crne Gore prvi put predloži mandatara.

Ako Skupština duže vrijeme ne obavlja nadležnosti utvrđene Ustavom, Vlada može, pošto sasluša mišljenje predsjednika Skupštine i predsjednika klubova poslanika u Skupštini, raspustiti Skupštinu.

Skupština se raspušta ukazom predsjednika Crne Gore.

Skupština se ne može raspustiti za vrijeme ratnog ili vanrednog stanja, ako je pokrenut postupak glasanja o nepovjerenju Vladi, kao ni u prva tri mjeseca od konstituisanja i tri mjeseca prije isteka mandata.

Predsjednik Crne Gore raspisuje izbore prvog narednog dana po raspu-štanju Skupštine.

Predlaganje zakona i drugih akata

Član 93

Pravo predlaganja zakona i drugih akata imaju Vlada i poslanik.

Pravo predlaganja zakona ima i šest hiljada birača, preko poslanika koga ovlaste.

Predlog za raspisivanje državnog referenduma mogu podnijeti: najmanje 25 poslanika, predsjednik Crne Gore, Vlada ili najmanje 10% građana koji imaju biračko pravo.

Proglašavanje zakona

Član 94

Predsjednik Crne Gore je dužan da proglasi zakon u roku od sedam dana od dana usvajanja zakona, odnosno u roku od tri dana ako je zakon usvojen po hitnom postupku ili da zakon vrati Skupštini na ponovno odlučivanje.

Predsjednik Crne Gore dužan je da proglasi ponovno izglasani zakon.

2. PREDSJEDNIK CRNE GORE

Nadležnost

Član 95

Predsjednik Crne Gore:

1) predstavlja Crnu Goru u zemlji i inostranstvu;

2) komanduje Vojskom na osnovu odluka Savjeta za odbranu i bezbjednost;

3) ukazom  proglašava  zakone;

4) raspisuje izbore za Skupštinu;

5) predlaže Skupštini: mandatara za sastav Vlade, nakon obavljenog razgovora sa predstavnicima političkih partija zastupljenih u Skupštini; predsjednika i sudije Ustavnog suda i zaštitnika ljudskih prava i sloboda;

6) postavlja i opoziva ambasadore i šefove drugih diplomatskih  predstav-ništava Crne Gore u inostranstvu, na predlog Vlade i uz mišljenje odbora Skupštine nadležnog za međunarodne odnose;

7) prima akreditivna i opozivna pisma stranih diplomatskih predstavnika;

8) dodjeljuje odlikovanja i priznanja Crne Gore;

9) daje pomilovanja;

10) vrši i druge poslove utvrđene Ustavom ili zakonom.

Izbor

Član 96

Predsjednik Crne Gore bira se na osnovu opšteg i jednakog biračkog prava, neposrednim i tajnim glasanjem.

Za predsjednika Crne Gore može biti biran crnogorski državljanin koji ima prebivalište u Crnoj Gori najmanje 10 godina u posljednjih 15 godina.

Izbor za predsjednika Crne Gore raspisuje predsjednik Skupštine.

Mandat

Član 97

Predsjednik Crne Gore bira se na pet godina.

Isto lice može biti predsjednik Crne Gore najviše dva puta.

Predsjednik Crne Gore stupa na dužnost danom polaganja zakletve pred poslanicima u Skupštini.

Ako mandat predsjednika ističe za vrijeme ratnog ili vanrednog stanja, mandat se produžava najduže 90 dana po prestanku okolnosti koje su izazvale to stanje.

Predsjednik Crne Gore ne može obavljati drugu javnu funkciju.

Prestanak mandata

Član 98

Mandat predsjednika Crne Gore prestaje istekom vremena na koje je biran, ostavkom, ako je trajno spriječen da vrši dužnost predsjednika i razrješenjem.

Predsjednik odgovara za povredu Ustava.

Postupak za utvrđivanje da li je predsjednik Crne Gore povrijedio Ustav može pokrenuti Skupština, na predlog najmanje 25 poslanika.

Predlog za pokretanje postupka Skupština dostavlja predsjedniku Crne Gore na izjašnjenje.

Odluku o postojanju ili nepostojanju povrede Ustava donosi Ustavni sud i bez odlaganja je objavljuje i dostavlja Skupštini i predsjedniku Crne Gore.

Predsjednika Crne Gore Skupština može razriješiti kada Ustavni sud utvrdi da je povrijedio Ustav.

Vršenje funkcije u slučaju spriječenosti ili prestanka mandata

Član 99

U slučaju prestanka mandata predsjednika Crne Gore, do izbora novog predsjednika, kao i u slučaju privremene spriječenosti predsjednika da obavlja funkciju, tu funkciju obavlja predsjednik Skupštine.

3. VLADA CRNE GORE

Nadležnost

Član 100

Vlada:

1) vodi unutrašnju i vanjsku politiku Crne Gore ;

2) izvršava zakone, druge propise i opšte akte;

3) donosi uredbe, odluke i druge akte za izvršavanje zakona;

4) zaključuje međunarodne ugovore;

5) predlaže plan razvoja i prostorni plan Crne Gore ;

6) predlaže budžet i završni račun budžeta;

7) predlaže strategiju  nacionalne bezbjednosti i strategiju odbrane;

8) odlučuje o priznavanju država i uspostavljanju diplomatskih i konzularnih odnosa sa drugim državama;

9) predlaže ambasadore i šefove drugih diplomatskih predstavništava Crne Gore  u inostranstvu;

10) vrši i druge poslove utvrđene Ustavom ili zakonom.

Uredbe sa zakonskom snagom

Član 101

Vlada može, za vrijeme ratnog ili vanrednog stanja, donositi uredbe sa zakonskom snagom, ako Skupština nije u mogućnosti da se sastane.

Vlada je dužna da uredbe sa zakonskom snagom podnese Skupštini na potvrđivanje  čim Skupština bude u mogućnosti da se sastane.

Sastav Vlade

Član 102

Vladu čine predsjednik, jedan ili više potpredsjednika i ministri.

Predsjednik Vlade predstavlja Vladu i rukovodi njenim radom.

Izbor

Član 103

Predsjednik Crne Gore predlaže mandatara u roku od 30 dana od dana konstituisanja Skupštine.

Mandatar za sastav Vlade iznosi u Skupštini svoj program i predlaže sastav Vlade.

O programu mandatara i predlogu za sastav Vlade Skupština odlučuje istovremeno.

Nespojivost funkcije

Član 104

Predsjednik Vlade i član Vlade ne može vršiti poslaničku i drugu javnu funkciju, niti profesionalno obavljati drugu djelatnost.

Ostavka i razrješenje

Član 105

Vlada i član Vlade mogu podnijeti ostavku.

Ostavka  predsjednika Vlade smatra se ostavkom Vlade.

Predsjednik Vlade može predložiti Skupštini da razriješi člana Vlade.

Pitanje povjerenja

Član 106

Vlada može u Skupštini postaviti pitanje svog povjerenja.

Pitanje nepovjerenja

Član 107

Skupština može izglasati nepovjerenje Vladi.

Predlog da se glasa o nepovjerenju Vladi može podnijeti najmanje 27 poslanika.

Ako je Vlada dobila povjerenje, potpisnici predloga ne mogu podnijeti novi predlog za glasanje o nepovjerenju prije isteka roka od 90 dana.

Interpelacija

Član 108

Interpelaciju za pretresanje određenih pitanja o radu Vlade može podnijeti najmanje 27  poslanika.

Interpelacija se podnosi u pisanom obliku i mora biti obrazložena.

Vlada dostavlja odgovor u roku od 30 dana od dana kada je primila interpelaciju.

Parlamentarna istraga

Član 109

Skupština može, na predlog najmanje 27 poslanika, obrazovati anketni odbor radi prikupljanja informacija i činjenica o događajima koji se odnose na rad državnih organa.

Prestanak mandata

Član 110

Vladi prestaje mandat: prestankom mandata Skupštine, podnošenjem ostavke, kad izgubi povjerenje i ako ne predloži budžet do 31. marta budžetske godine.

Vlada kojoj je prestao mandat nastavlja rad do izbora Vlade u novom sastavu.

Vlada kojoj je prestao mandat ne može raspustiti Skupštinu.

Državna uprava

Član 111

Poslove državne uprave vrše ministarstva i drugi organi uprave.

Prenošenje i povjeravanje poslova

Član 112

Pojedini poslovi državne uprave mogu se zakonom prenijeti na lokalnu samoupravu ili drugo pravno lice.

Pojedini poslovi državne uprave mogu se propisom Vlade povjeriti lokalnoj samoupravi ili drugom pravnom licu.

4. LOKALNA SAMOUPRAVA

Način odlučivanja

Član 113

U lokalnoj samoupravi odlučuje se neposredno i preko slobodno izabranih predstavnika.

Pravo na lokalnu samoupravu obuhvata pravo građana i organa lokalne samouprave da uređuju i upravljaju određenim javnim i drugim poslovima, na osnovu sopstvene odgovornosti i u interesu lokalnog stanovništva.

Oblik lokalne samouprave

Član 114

Osnovni oblik lokalne samouprave je opština.

Mogu se osnivati i drugi oblici lokalne samouprave.

Opština

Član 115

Opština ima svojstvo pravnog lica.

Opština donosi statut i opšte akte.

Organi opštine su skupština i predsjednik.

Svojinska ovlašćenja i finansiranje

Član 116

Opština vrši određena svojinska ovlašćenja na stvarima u državnoj svojini u skladu sa zakonom.

Opština ima imovinu.

Opština se finansira iz sopstvenih prihoda i sredstava države.

Opština ima budžet.

Samostalnost

Član 117

Opština je samostalna u vršenju svojih nadležnosti.

Vlada može raspustiti skupštinu opštine, odnosno razriješiti predsjednika opštine samo ako skupština opštine, odnosno predsjednik opštine, u vremenu dužem od šest mjeseci, ne vrše svoje nadležnosti.

5. S U D

Načela sudstva

Član 118

Sud je samostalan i nezavisan.

Sud sudi na osnovu Ustava, zakona i potvrđenih i objavljenih međunarod-nih ugovora.

Zabranjeno je osnivanje prijekih i vanrednih sudova.

Sudsko vijeće

Član 119

Sud sudi u vijeću, osim kada je zakonom određeno da sudi sudija pojedinac.

U suđenju učestvuju i sudije-porotnici, kada je to utvrđeno zakonom.

Javnost suđenja

Član 120

Rasprava pred sudom je javna i presude se izriču javno.

Izuzetno, sud može isključiti javnost sa rasprave ili njenog dijela iz razloga koji su nužni u demokratskom društvu, samo u obimu koji je potreban: u interesu morala ; javnog reda; kada se sudi maloljetnicima; radi zaštite privatnog života stranaka; u bračnim sporovima; u postupcima u vezi sa starateljstvom ili usvojenjem; radi čuvanja vojne, poslovne ili službene tajne  i zaštite bezbjednosti i odbrane Crne Gore.

Stalnost funkcije

Član 121

Sudijska funkcija je stalna.

Sudiji prestaje funkcija ako to sâm zatraži, kada ispuni uslove za ostvari-vanje prava na starosnu penziju i ako je osuđen na bezuslovnu kaznu zatvora.

Sudija se razrješava dužnosti: ako je osuđen za djelo koje ga čini nedostojnim za vršenje sudijske funkcije; nestručno ili nesavjesno obavlja sudijsku funkciju ili ako trajno izgubi sposobnost za vršenje sudijske funkcije.

Sudija ne može biti premješten ili upućen u drugi sud protiv svoje volje, osim odlukom Sudskog savjeta u slučaju reorganizacije sudova.

Funkcionalni imunitet

Član 122

Sudija i sudija-porotnik uživa funkcionalni imunitet.

Sudija i sudija-porotnik ne može biti pozvan na odgovornost za izraženo mišljenje i glasanje pri donošenju sudske odluke, osim ako se radi o krivičnom djelu.

Sudija, u postupku pokrenutom zbog krivičnog djela učinjenog u obavljanju sudijske funkcije, ne može biti pritvoren bez odobrenja Sudskog savjeta.

Nespojivost funkcije

Član 123

Sudija ne može vršiti poslaničku ili drugu javnu funkciju niti profesionalno obavljati drugu djelatnost.

Vrhovni sud

Član 124

Vrhovni sud je najviši sud u Crnoj Gori.

Vrhovni sud obezbjeđuje jedinstvenu primjenu zakona od strane sudova.

Predsjednika Vrhovnog suda bira i razrješava te funkcije Skupština na zajednički predlog predsjednika Crne Gore, predsjednika Skupštine i predsjednika Vlade.

Ako se predlog za izbor predsjednika Vrhovnog suda ne podnese u roku od 30 dana, predsjednik Vrhovnog suda se bira na predlog nadležnog radnog tijela Skupštine.

Izbor sudija

Član 125

Sudiju i predsjednika suda bira i razrješava Sudski savjet.

Predsjednik suda bira  se na vrijeme od pet godina.

Predsjednik  suda  ne može biti član Sudskog savjeta.

Sudski savjet

Član 126

Sudski savjet je samostalan i nezavisan organ koji obezbjeđuje nezavisnost i samostalnost sudova i sudija.

Sastav Sudskog savjeta

Član 127

Sudski savjet ima predsjednika i devet članova.

Predsjednik Sudskog savjeta je predsjednik Vrhovnog suda.

Članovi Sudskog savjeta su:

1) četiri sudije koje bira i razrješava Konferencija sudija;

2) dva poslanika koje bira i razrješava Skupština iz reda parlamentarne većine i opozicije;

3) dva ugledna pravnika koje bira i razrješava predsjednik Crne Gore;

4) ministar pravde.

Sastav Sudskog savjeta proglašava predsjednik Crne Gore.

Mandat Sudskog savjeta je četiri godine.

Nadležnost Sudskog savjeta

Član 128

Sudski savjet:

1) bira i razrješava sudiju, predsjednika suda i sudiju- porotnika;

2) utvrđuje prestanak sudijske funkcije;

3) utvrđuje broj sudija i sudija-porotnika u sudu;

4) razmatra izvještaj o radu suda, predstavke i pritužbe na rad suda i zauzima stavove o njima;

5) odlučuje o imunitetu sudije;

6) predlaže Vladi iznos sredstava za rad sudova;

7) vrši i druge poslove utvrđene zakonom.

Sudski savjet odlučuje većinom glasova svih članova.

U postupcima disciplinske odgovornosti sudija, ministar pravde ne glasa.

6. VOJSKA CRNE GORE

Načela

Član 129

Vojska brani nezavisnost, suverenost i državnu teritoriju Crne Gore, u skladu sa principima međunarodnog prava o upotrebi sile.

Vojska je pod demokratskom i civilnom kontrolom.

Pripadnici Vojske mogu biti u sastavu međunarodnih snaga.

7. SAVJET ZA ODBRANU I BEZBJEDNOST

Nadležnost

Član 130

Savjet za odbranu i bezbjednost:

1) donosi odluke o komandovanju Vojskom Crne Gore;

2) analizira i ocjenjuje bezbjednosnu situaciju u Crnoj Gori i donosi odluke za preduzimanje odgovarajućih mjera;

3) postavlja, unapređuje i razrješava oficire Vojske;

4) predlaže Skupštini proglašenje ratnog i vanrednog  stanja;

5) predlaže upotrebu Vojske u međunarodnim snagama;

6) vrši i druge poslove utvrđene Ustavom ili zakonom.

Sastav

Član 131

Savjet za odbranu i bezbjednost Crne Gore čine: predsjednik Crne Gore, predsjednik Skupštine i predsjednik Vlade.

Predsjednik Crne Gore je predsjednik Savjeta za odbranu i bezbjednost.

Proglašenje ratnog stanja

Član 132

Ratno stanje proglašava se kada postoji neposredna ratna opasnost za Crnu Goru, kada je Crna Gora napadnuta ili joj je objavljen rat.

Ako Skupština nije u mogućnosti da se sastane, odluku o proglašenju ratnog stanja donosi Savjet za odbranu i bezbjednost i podnosi je Skupštini na potvrđivanje čim Skupština bude u mogućnosti da se sastane.

Proglašenje vanrednog stanja

Član 133

Vanredno stanje može se proglasiti na teritoriji ili dijelu teritorije Crne Gore u slučaju :

1) velikih prirodnih nepogoda;

2) tehničko-tehnoloških i ekoloških nesreća i epidemija;

3) većeg narušavanja javnog reda i mira;

4) ugrožavanja ili pokušaja rušenja ustavnog poretka.

Ako Skupština nije u mogućnosti da se sastane, odluku o proglašenju vanrednog stanja donosi Savjet za odbranu i bezbjednost i podnosi je na potvrdu Skupštini, čim ona bude u mogućnosti da se sastane.

Vanredno stanje traje do prestanka okolnosti zbog kojih je proglašeno.

8. DRŽAVNO TUŽILAŠTVO

Status i nadležnost

Član 134

Državno tužilaštvo je jedinstven i samostalan državni organ koji vrši poslove gonjenja učinilaca krivičnih djela i drugih kažnjivih djela koja se gone po službenoj dužnosti .

Imenovanje i mandat

Član 135

Poslove Državnog tužilaštva vrši državni tužilac.

Državni tužilac ima  jednog ili više zamjenika.

Vrhovni državni tužilac i državni tužioci imenuju se na vrijeme od pet godina.

Tužilački savjet

Član 136

Tužilački savjet obezbjeđuje samostalnost državnog tužilaštva i državnih tužilaca.

Tužilački savjet bira i razrješava Skupština.

Izbor, mandat, nadležnosti, organizacija i način rada Tužilačkog savjeta uređuju se zakonom.

Funkcionalni imunitet

Član 137

Državni tužilac i zamjenik državnog tužioca uživaju funkcionalni imunitet i ne mogu biti pozvani na odgovornost za mišljenje dato ili odluku donijetu u vršenju svoje funkcije, osim ako se radi o krivičnom djelu.

Nespojivost funkcije

Član 138

Državni tužilac i zamjenik državnog tužioca ne mogu vršiti poslaničku i drugu javnu funkciju, niti profesionalno obavljati drugu djelatnost.

DIO ČETVRTI

EKONOMSKO UREĐENJE

Principi

Član 139

Ekonomsko uređenje zasniva se na slobodnom i otvorenom tržištu, slobodi preduzetništva i konkurencije, samostalnosti privrednih subjekata i njihovoj odgovornosti za preuzete obaveze u pravnom prometu, zaštiti i ravnopravnosti svih oblika svojine.

Ekonomski prostor i jednakost

Član 140

Teritorija Crne Gore je jedinstven ekonomski prostor.

Država podstiče ravnomjeran ekonomski razvoj svih njenih područja.

Zabranjeno je narušavanje i ograničavanje slobodne konkurencije i pod-sticanje neravnopravnog, monopolskog ili dominantnog položaja na tržištu.

Državna svojina

Član 141

Stvari u državnoj svojini pripadaju državi Crnoj Gori.

Poreska obaveza

Član 142

Država se finansira od poreza, dažbina i drugih prihoda.

Svako je dužan da plaća poreze i druge dažbine.

Porezi i druge dažbine mogu se uvoditi samo zakonom.

Centralna banka Crne Gore

Član 143

Centralna banka Crne Gore je samostalna organizacija, odgovorna za monetarnu i finansijsku stabilnost i funkcionisanje bankarskog sistema .

Centralnom bankom Crne Gore upravlja Savjet Centralne banke.

Centralnom bankom Crne Gore rukovodi guverner Centralne banke.

Državna revizorska institucija

Član 144

Državna revizorska institucija Crne Gore je samostalan i vrhovni organ državne revizije.

Državna revizorska institucija vrši reviziju zakonitosti i uspješnosti upravljanja državnom imovinom i obavezama, budžetima i svim finansijskim poslovima subjekata čiji su izvori finansiranja javni ili nastaju korišćenjem državne imovine.

Državna revizorska institucija podnosi Skupštini godišnji izvještaj.

Državnom revizorskom institucijom upravlja Senat.

DIO PETI

USTAVNOST I ZAKONITOST

Saglasnost pravnih propisa

Član 145

Zakon mora biti saglasan sa Ustavom i potvrđenim međunarodnim ugovorima, a drugi propis mora biti saglasan sa Ustavom i zakonom.

Objavljivanje i stupanje na snagu propisa

Član 146

Zakon i drugi propis objavljuje se prije stupanja na snagu, a stupa na snagu najranije osmog dana od dana objavljivanja.

Izuzetno, kada za to postoje razlozi utvrđeni u postupku donošenja, zakon i drugi propis može stupiti na snagu najranije danom objavljivanja.

Zabrana povratnog dejstva

Član 147

Zakon i drugi propis  ne može imati povratno dejstvo.

Izuzetno, pojedine odredbe zakona, ako to zahtijeva javni interes utvrđen u postupku donošenja zakona, mogu imati povratno dejstvo.

Odredba krivičnog zakona može imati povratno dejstvo samo ako je blaža za učinioca krivičnog djela.

Zakonitost pojedinačnih akata

Član 148

Pojedinačni pravni akt mora biti saglasan sa zakonom.

Konačni pojedinačni pravni akti uživaju sudsku zaštitu.

DIO ŠESTI

USTAVNI SUD CRNE GORE

Nadležnost

Član 149

Ustavni sud odlučuje:

1) o saglasnosti zakona sa Ustavom i potvrđenim i objavljenim međuna-rodnim ugovorima;

2) o saglasnosti drugih propisa i opštih akata sa Ustavom i zakonom;

3) o ustavnoj žalbi zbog povrede ljudskih prava i sloboda zajamčenih Ustavom, nakon iscrpljivanja svih djelotvornih pravnih sredstava;

4) da li je predsjednik Crne Gore povrijedio Ustav ;

5) o sukobu nadležnosti između sudova i drugih državnih organa, između državnih organa i organa jedinica lokalne samouprave i između organa jedinica lokalne samouprave;

6) o zabrani rada političke partije ili nevladine organizacije;

7) o izbornim sporovima i sporovima u vezi sa referendumom koji nijesu u nadležnosti drugih sudova;

8) o saglasnosti sa Ustavom mjera i radnji državnih organa preduzetih za vrijeme ratnog i vanrednog stanja;

9) vrši i druge poslove utvrđene Ustavom.

Ako je u toku postupka za ocjenu ustavnosti i zakonitosti propis prestao da važi, a nijesu otklonjene posljedice njegove primjene, Ustavni sud utvrđuje da li je taj propis bio saglasan sa Ustavom, odnosno sa zakonom za vrijeme njegovog važenja.

Ustavni sud prati ostvarivanje ustavnosti i zakonitosti i o uočenim pojavama neustavnosti i nezakonitosti obavještava Skupštinu.

Pokretanje postupka za ocjenu ustavnosti i zakonitosti

Član 150

Svako može dati inicijativu za pokretanje postupka za ocjenu ustavnosti i zakonitosti.

Postupak pred Ustavnim sudom za ocjenu ustavnosti i zakonitosti može da pokrene sud, drugi  državni organ, organ lokalne samouprave i pet poslanika.

Ustavni sud može i sâm pokrenuti postupak za ocjenu ustavnosti i zakonitosti.

U toku postupka, Ustavni sud može narediti da se obustavi izvršenje pojedinačnog akta ili radnje koji su preduzeti na osnovu zakona, drugog propisa ili opšteg akta čija se ustavnost ili zakonitost ocjenjuje, ako bi njihovim izvršenjem mogle nastupiti neotklonjive štetne posljedice.

Odluka Ustavnog suda

Član 151

Ustavni sud odlučuje većinom glasova svih sudija.

Odluka Ustavnog suda se objavljuje.

Odluka Ustavnog suda je obavezna i izvršna.

Izvršenje odluke Ustavnog suda, kada je to potrebno, obezbjeđuje Vlada.

Prestanak važenja propisa

Član 152

Kad Ustavni sud utvrdi da zakon nije u saglasnosti sa Ustavom i potvrđenim i objavljenim međunarodnim ugovorima, odnosno da drugi propis nije saglasan sa Ustavom i zakonom, taj zakon i drugi propis prestaje da važi danom objavljivanja odluke Ustavnog suda.

Zakon ili drugi propis, odnosno pojedine njihove odredbe, za koje je odlukom Ustavnog suda utvrđeno da nijesu saglasne sa Ustavom ili zakonom, ne mogu se primjenjivati na odnose koji su nastali prije objavljivanja odluke Ustavnog suda ako do tog dana nijesu pravosnažno riješeni.

Sastav i izbor

Član 153

Ustavni sud ima sedam sudija.

Sudija Ustavnog suda bira se na vrijeme od devet godina.

Predsjednik Ustavnog suda bira se iz reda sudija na vrijeme od tri godine.

Za sudiju Ustavnog suda može biti birano lice koje uživa ugled istaknutog pravnog stručnjaka, sa najmanje 15 godina rada u struci.

Predsjednik i sudija Ustavnog suda ne može vršiti poslaničku i drugu javnu funkciju niti profesionalno obavljati drugu djelatnost.

Prestanak funkcije

Član 154

Predsjedniku i sudiji Ustavnog suda prestaje funkcija prije isteka vremena na koje je izabran ako to sâm zatraži, kad ispuni uslove za starosnu penziju ili  ako je osuđen na bezuslovnu kaznu zatvora.

Predsjednik i sudija Ustavnog suda razrješava se dužnosti ako je osuđen  za djelo koje ga čini nedostojnim za vršenje funkcije, ako trajno izgubi sposobnost za vršenje funkcije ili javno ispoljava svoja politička uvjerenja.

Nastupanje razloga za prestanak funkcije ili razrješenje utvrđuje Ustavni sud na sjednici i o tome obavještava Skupštinu.

Ustavni sud može odlučiti da predsjednik ili sudija Ustavnog suda protiv koga je pokrenut krivični postupak, ne vrši dužnost dok taj postupak traje.

DIO SEDMI

PROMJENA USTAVA

Predlog za promjenu ustava

Član 155

Predlog za promjenu Ustava može podnijeti predsjednik Crne Gore, Vlada ili najmanje 25  poslanika.

Predlogom za promjenu Ustava može se predložiti izmjena ili dopuna pojedinih odredbi Ustava ili donošenje novog ustava.

Predlog za promjenu pojedinih odredaba Ustava mora da sadrži naznačenje odredbi čije se promjene traže i obrazloženje.

Predlog za promjenu Ustava usvojen je u Skupštini, ako za njega glasa dvije trećine svih poslanika.

Ako predlog za promjenu Ustava nije usvojen, isti predlog ne može se ponoviti prije isteka jedne godine od dana kada je predlog odbijen.

Akt o promjeni Ustava

Član 156

Promjena pojedinih odredbi Ustava vrši se amandmanima.

Nacrt akta o promjeni Ustava sačinjava nadležno radno tijelo Skupštine.

Nacrt akta o promjeni Ustava usvojen je u Skupštini, ako za njega glasa dvije trećine svih poslanika.

Usvojeni nacrt akta o promjeni Ustava Skupština stavlja na javnu raspravu koja ne može trajati kraće od mjesec dana.

Po završetku javne rasprave nadležno radno tijelo Skupštine utvrđuje pred-log akta o promjeni Ustava.

Akt o promjeni Ustava usvojen je u Skupštini ako za njega glasa dvije trećine svih poslanika.

Promjena Ustava ne može se vršiti za vrijeme ratnog i vanrednog stanja.

Potvrda na referendumu

Član 157

Promjena članova 1, 2, 3, 4, 12, 13, 15, 45 i 157 konačna je ako se na državnom referendumu za promjenu izjasni najmanje tri petine svih birača.

DIO OSMI

PRELAZNA I ZAVRŠNA ODREDBA

Ustavni zakon za sprovođenje ustava

Član 158

Za sprovođenje Ustava donosi se ustavni zakon.

Ustavni zakon za sprovođenje Ustava donosi Skupština većinom glasova svih poslanika.

Ustavni zakon proglašava se i stupa na snagu istovremeno sa Ustavom.

SU-SK Broj 01-514/21, Podgorica, 19. oktobra 2007. godine

USTAVOTVORNA SKUPŠTINA REPUBLIKE CRNE GORE

PREDSJEDNIK

Ranko Krivokapić

Na osnovu člana 15 stav 1 Zakona o postupku za donošenje i proglašenje novog ustava Crne Gore („Službeni list RCG“, br. 66/06), Ustavotvorna skupština Republike Crne Gore, na trećoj sjednici drugog redovnog zasijedanja u 2007. godini, dana 22. oktobra 2007. godine, donijela je

O D L U K U

O PROGLAŠENJU USTAVA CRNE GORE

Proglašava se USTAV CRNE GORE, koji je usvojila Ustavotvorna skupština Republike Crne Gore, na trećoj sjednici drugog redovnog zasijedanja u 2007. godini, dana 19. oktobra 2007. godine.

SU-SK Broj 01-514/22, Podgorica, 22. oktobra 2007. godine

USTAVOTVORNA SKUPŠTINA REPUBLIKE CRNE GORE

PREDSJEDNIK

Ranko Krivokapić

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