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The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova


Adopted on July, 29, 1994
Monitorul Oficial al R.Moldova No 1 of 18.08.1994

 

WE, the plenipotentiary representatives of the people of the Republic of Moldova, members of Parliament,

STARTING from the age-old aspirations of our people to live in a sovereign country, and fulfilling those aspirations in proclaiming the independence of the Republic of Moldova,

CONSIDERING that while growing into a nation the Moldovan people has given strong evidence of historical and ethnic continuity in its statehood,

STRIVING to satisfy the interests of those of its citizens that, while being of a different ethnic origin, are, together with the Moldovans, forming the Moldovan people,

JUDGING the rule of law, the civic peace, democracy, human dignity, the rights and freedoms of man, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism to be supreme political values,

BEING AWARE of our responsibility and duties towards the past, present and future generations,

REASSERTING OUT devotion to overall human values, and our wish to live in peace and harmony with all the peoples of this world, in accordance with the unanimously acknowledged principles and norms of international law, we herewith adopt for our country this Constitution, and proclaim it to be the SUPREME LAW OF OUR SOCIETY AND STATE.

 

Title I.
General Principles

 

Article 1
The State of the Republic of Moldova

(1) The Republic of Moldova is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible state.

(2) The form of government of the State is the republic.

(3) Governed by the role of law, the Republic of Moldova is a democratic State in which the dignity of people, their rights and freedoms, the open development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent supreme values, that shall be guaranteed.

 

Article 2
Sovereignty and State Power

(1) National sovereignty resides with the people of the Republic of Moldova, who shall exercise it directly and through its representative bodies in the ways provided for by Constitution.

(2) No private individual, national segment of population, social grouping, political party or public organization may exercise state power on their own behalf. The usurpation of state power constitutes the gravest crime against the people.

 

Article 3
The Territory

(1) The territory of the Republic of Moldova is inalienable.

(2) The frontiers of the country are sanctioned by an organic Law under the observance of unanimously recognized principles and norms of international law.

 

Article 4
Human Rights and Freedoms

(1) Constitutional provisions for human rights and freedoms shall be understood and implemented in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and with other conventions and treaties endorsed by the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Wherever disagreements appear between conventions and treaties signed by the Republic of Moldova and her own national laws, priority shall be given to international regulations.

 

Article 5
Democracy and Political Pluralism

(1) Democracy in the Republic of Moldova is exercised under conditions of political pluralism, which is incompatible with dictatorship or totalitarianism.

(2) No ideology may be pronounced as an official ideology of the State.

 

Article 6
Separation and Cooperation of Powers

The Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial Powers are separate and cooperate in the exercise of their prerogatives in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

 

Article 7
The Constitution as the Supreme Law

The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova is the supreme law of the country. No laws or other legal acts and regulations in contradiction with the provisions of the Constitution may have any legal power.

 

Article 8
Observance of International Law and International Treaties

(1) The Republic of Moldova pledges to respect the Charter of the United Nations and the treaties to which she is a party, to observe with her relations to other states the unanimously recognized principles and norms of international law.

(2) The coming into force of an international treaty containing provisions contrary to the Constitution shall be preceded by a revision of the latter.

 

Article 9
The Fundamental Principles Regarding Property

(1) Property can be public or private, and it can consist of material and intellectual goods.

(2) No property may be used to encroach upon or damage the rights, liberty and dignity of people.

(3) The national economy is based on the interaction of market forces, also on free economic initiative and fair competition.

 

Article 10
The Unity of the Nation and the Right to National Identity

(1) The national unity of the Republic of Moldova constitutes the foundation of the State. The Republic of Moldova is the common and indivisible motherland of all her citizens.

(2) The State recognizes and guarantees all its citizens the right to preserve, develop and express their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.

 

Article 11
The Republic of Moldova as a Neutral State

(1) The Republic of Moldova proclaims her permanent neutrality.

(2) The Republic of Moldova will not admit the stationing of any foreign military troops on its territory.

 

Article 12
National Symbols

(1) The Republic of Moldova has her own flag, coat of arms and anthem.

(2) The State flag of the Republic of Moldova is a tricolour. The colours are arranged vertically in the following order from the flagpole: blue, yellow, red. The coat of arms is printed on the central yellow stripe of the tricolour.

(3) Moldova's coat of arms consists of a shield divided horizontally into two parts: the upper part is red, and the lower part is blue with a superimposed auroch's head showing between its horns an eight-pointed star. On its right the auroch's head is flanked by a five-petalled rose, and on its left by a slightly rotated crescent. All heraldic elements present on the shield are of golden (yellow) colour. The shield is laid on the breast of a natural eagle holding in its beak a golden cross, in its right claw a green olive-tree branch and in its left claw a golden sceptre.

(4) Moldova's State anthem shall be established by organic law.

(5) The flag, the coat of arms and the anthem are State symbols of the Republic of Moldova, and are protected by law as such.

 

Article 13
The National Language, Use of Other Languages

(1) The national language of the Republic of Moldova is Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet.

(2) The Moldovan State acknowledges and protects the right to preserve, develop and use the Russian language and other languages spoken within the national territory of the country .

(3) The State will encourage and promote studies of foreign languages enjoying widespread international usage.

(4) The use of languages in the territory of the Republic of Moldova will be established by organic law.

 

Article 14
The Capital

The city of Chisinau is the capital of the Republic of Moldova.

 

Title II.
Fundamental Rights, Freedoms and Duties

Chapter I. General Provisions

 

Article 15
Universality

The Constitution in conjunction with other laws grants the citizens of the Republic of Moldova their rights and freedoms and also lays down their duties upon them.

 

Article 16
Equality of Rights

(1) It is the foremost duty of the State to respect and protect the human person.

(2) All citizens of the Republic of Moldova are equal before the law and the public authorities, without any discrimination as to race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, political choice, personal property or social origin.

 

Article 17
Citizenship of the Republic of Moldova

(1) The citizenship of the Republic of Moldova can be acquired, retained or lost only under the conditions provided for by the organic law.

(2) No one may be deprived arbitrarily of his/her citizenship or the right to change it.

[Art.17 in the wording of the Law no.1469-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]

 

Article 18
Citizenship Restrictions and State Protection for Its Nationals

(1) The citizens of the Republic of Moldova shall enjoy the protection of their State both at home and abroad.

(2) No citizen of the Republic of Moldova can be extradited or expelled from his/her country.

[Art.18 in the wording of the Law no.1469-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]

 

Article 19
Legal status of aliens and stateless persons

(1) Except in cases where the law has different rulings aliens and stateless persons shall enjoy the same rights and shall have the same duties as the citizens of the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Alien or stateless citizens may be extradited only in compliance with an international agreement or under conditions of reciprocity, or in consequence of a decision of a court of law.

(3) The right to asylum shall be granted and denied by rule of law in compliance with those international treaties the Republic of Moldova is a party to.

[Art.19 in the wording of the Law no.1469-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]

 

Article 20
Free Access to Justice

(1) Every citizen has the right to obtain effective protection from competent courts of Jurisdiction against actions infringing on his/her legitimate rights, freedoms and interests.

(2) No law may restrict the access to justice.

 

Article 21
Presumption of Innocence

Any person accused to have committed an offense shall be presumed innocent until found guilty on legal grounds, brought forward in a public trial in the course of which all guarantees for necessary defense will have been taken.

 

Article 22
Nonretroactivity of Law

No one may be sentenced for actions or omissions which did not constitute an offense at the time they were committed. Also, no punishment may be given that is harsher than that applicable at the time when the offense was committed.

 

Article 23
The Right to Know One's Rights and Duties

(1) Every one has the right to an acknowledged legal status.

(2) The State ensures the right of everybody to know his/her rights and duties. For that purpose the State shall publish all its laws and regulations and make them accessible to everybody.

Chapter II. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

 

Article 24
The Right to Life and Physical and Mental Integrity

(1) The State guarantees everybody the right to life, and to physical and mental integrity.

(2) No one may be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment.

(3) Capital punishment is abolished. No one could be sentenced to such a punishment nor executed, except for acts committed upon war or threat of war and only in compliance with the law.

[Paragraph 3 art.24 in the wording of the Law no.351-XV of 12.07.2001]

 

Article 25
Individual Freedom and Personal Security

(l) Individual freedom and personal security are declared to be inviolable.

(2) Searching, detaining in custody or arresting a person shall be permitted only if based on the authority of law.

(3) The period of detention in custody may not exceed 72 hours.

[Paragraph 3 art.25 in the wording of the Law no.351-XV of 12.07.2001]

(4) Persons may be arrested only under warrant issued by a judge for a maximum time limit of 30 days. The arrested may contest the legality of the warrant and lay a complaint before a hierarchically superior court, which is bound to reply by way of a motivated decision. The time limit of detention may be extended to 12 months only by a judge or by court, in compliance with the law.

[Paragraph 4 art.25 in the wording of the Law no.351-XV of 12.07.2001]

(5) The person detained in custody or arrested shall be informed without delay of the reasons for his detention or arrest, as well as of the charges made against him/her, which may take place only in the presence of a lawyer, either chosen by the defendant or appointed ex officio.

(6) If the reasons for detention in custody or arrest have ceased to exist, the release of the person concerned must follow without delay.

 

Article 26
Right of Defense

(l) The right of defense is guaranteed.

(2) Everybody has the right to respond independently by appropriate legitimate means to an infringement of his/her rights and freedoms.

(3) Throughout the trial the parties have the right to be assisted by a lawyer, either chosen or appointed ex officio.

(4) Any interference with the activity of those carrying out the defense within legally established confines shall be punished by authority of law.

 

Article 27
The Right to Free Movement

(1) The right to move freely within the boundaries of one's native country is guaranteed.

(2) Every citizen of the Republic of Moldova is guaranteed the right to choose his place of residence anywhere within the national territory, to travel in and out of the country, also to emigrate at will.

 

Article 28
Private and Family Life

The State shall respect and protect private and family life.

 

Article 29
Inviolability of Domicile

(1) The domicile is inviolable. No one may enter upon or stay on the premises of a domicile without the owner's consent.

(2) The law shall allow for derogation from the provisions of paragraph (1) under the following circumstances:

a.                   For executing an arrest warrant or a decision of a court of law;

b.                  For forestalling imminent danger threatening of the life, physical integrity or the property of a person;

c.                   For preventing the spread of an epidemic disease.

(3) Searches and questioning in a domicile may he ordered and earned out only in accordance with the rule of law.

(4) Except for cases where an obvious offence has been committed, night searches are forbidden.

Article 30
Privacy of Correspondence

(1) The State shall ensure the privacy of letters, telegrams, other postal dispatches, of telephone conversations and of using other legal means of communication.

(2) Exceptions to paragraph (1) are allowed when they are in the interests of the national security, economic welfare of the country, public order and preventing crime.

[Paragraph 2 art.30 in the wording of the Law no.351-XV of 12.07.2001]

Article 31
Freedom of Conscience

(1) The freedom of conscience is guaranteed, and its manifestations should be in a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect.

(2) The freedom of religious worship is guaranteed and religious bodies are free to organize themselves according to their own statutes under the rule of law.

(3) In their mutual relationships religious cults are forbidden to use, express or incite to hatred or enmity.

(4) Religious cults are autonomous vis-a-vis the State and shall enjoy the latter's support, including that aimed at providing religious assistance in the army, in hospitals, prisons, homes for the elderly and orphanages.

Article 32
Freedom of Opinion and Expression

(1) All citizens are guaranteed the freedom of opinion as well as the freedom of publicly expressing their thoughts and opinions by way of word, image or any other means possible.

(2) The freedom of expression may not harm the honour, dignity or the rights of other people to have and express their own opinions or judgements.

(3) The law shall forbid and prosecute all actions aimed at denying and slandering the State or the people. Likewise shall be forbidden and prosecuted the investigations to sedition, war, aggression, ethnic, racial or religious hatred, the incitement to discrimination, territorial separatism, public violence, or other actions threatening constitutional order.

Article 33
Freedom to Create

(1) The freedom to create scientific and artistic works is guaranteed. Creative work may not be submitted to censorship.

(2) The law shall protect the rights of citizens to their intellectual property, and to the material and moral interests related to various forms of intellectual creation.

(3) The State shall support the preservation, development and propagation of national and world achievements in culture and science.

Article 34
The Right of Access to Information

(1) Having access to any information of public interest is everybody's right, that may not be curtailed.

(2) According with their established level of competence, public authorities shall ensure that citizens are correctly informed both on public affairs and matters of personal interest.

(3) The right of access to information may not prejudice either the measures taken to protect the citizens or the national security.

(4) The State and private media are obliged to ensure that correct information reaches public opinion.

(5) The public media shall not be submitted to censorship.

Article 35
The Right of Access to Education

(1) The right of access to education is put into effect through the compulsory comprehensive public school system, lyceal (public secondary school) and vocational education, as well as the higher education system, and other forms of instruction and training.

(2) The State will enforce under the law the right of each person to choose his/her language in which teaching will be effected.

(3) In all forms of educational institutions the study of the country's official language will be ensured.

(4) State public education is free.

(5) All educational institutions, including those that are not financed by the state, shall be established and function under the rule of law.

(6) Higher education institutions have the right to be autonomous.

(7) The access to lyceal, vocational and higher education is equally open to all and is based on personal merit.

(8) The State ensures under the law the freedom of religious education. The State ensures a lay education.

(9) The priority right of choosing an appropriate educational background for children lies with the parents.

Article 36
The Right of Health Security

(1) The right of health security is guaranteed.

(2) The State shall provide a minimum health insurance, that is free.

(3) Organic laws will establish the structure of the national health security system and the means necessary for protecting individual physical and mental health.

Article 37
The Right to Live in a Healthy Environment

(1) Every human being has the right to live in an environment that is ecologically safe for life and health, to obtain healthy food products and harmless household appliances.

(2) The State guarantees every citizen the right of free access to truthful information regarding the state of the natural environment, the living and working conditions, and the quality of food products and household appliances.

(3) Non-disclosure or falsification of information regarding factors detrimental to human health constitute offenses punishable by law.

(4) Private individuals and legal entities shall be held responsible before the law for any damages they may cause to personal health and property due to an ecological offense.

Article 38
The Right of Voting and Being Elected

(1) The foundation of State power is the will of the people made known through free elections held at regular intervals and based on universal, equal, direct, and free suffrage.

(2) Except for the persons banned from voting by law, all the citizens of the Republic of Moldova having attained the age of 18 on or by the voting day inclusively have the right to vote.

(3) The right of being elected is granted to all citizens of the Republic of Moldova enjoying the right of voting.

Article 39
The Right of Administering

(1) The citizens of the Republic of Moldova have the right of participating in the administration of public affairs, either directly or through their representatives.

(2) The access to a public office or position is guaranteed by law to all citizens of the Republic of Moldova.

Article 40
The Freedom of Assembly

All meetings, demonstrations, rallies, processions or any other assemblies are free, and they may be organized and take place only peacefully and without the use of weapons.

Article 41
The Freedom of Political Association

(1) All citizens are free to associate in parties and other social and political organizations. These organizations contribute to the definition and expression of public political will, and under the rule of law take part in the electing process.

(2) All parties and other social/political organizations are equal before the law.

(3) The State shall ensure the protection of the rights and legitimate interests of parties and other social/political organizations.

(4) Parties and social/political organizations are declared unconstitutional if by their aims or activities they are engaged in fighting against political pluralism, the principles of the rule of law, the sovereignty and independence or territorial integrity of the Republic of Moldova.

(5) Secret associations are forbidden.

(6) The activity of parties consisting of foreign nationals is forbidden.

(7) The organic law shall establish those public offices whose holders may not join political parties.

Article 42
The Right of Establishing and Joining Trades-Unions

(1) Any employee has the right to establish and join a trades-union in order to defend his/her interests.

(2) Trades-unions are founded and carry on their activities in accordance with their statutes under the law. They make their contribution to the defense of employees professional, economic and social interests.

Article 43
The Right of Working and of Access to Work

(1) Every person has the right to freely choose his/her work, and to benefit from equitable and satisfactory working conditions, as well as to be protected against unemployment.

(2) All employees have the right of work protection. In this respect the protective measures will bear upon work security and hygiene, working conditions for women and young people, the introduction of minimum wages across the national economy, the weekly period of rest, the paid holidays, difficult working conditions, as well as other specific situations.

(3) The length of the working week shall not exceed 40 hours.

(4) The right of collective bargaining is guaranteed, and so is the legal enforceability of collective agreements.

Article 44
Prohibition of Forced Labour

(1) Forced labour is prohibited.

(2) Not to be regarded as forced labour are the following:

a.                   Military-like duty or the activities designed to replace it, carried out by those who under the law are exempted from compulsory military service;

b.                  Work done by a convicted person under normal conditions, in custody or on conditional release;

c.                   Services such as required to deal with calamities or other dangers or as considered under the law to be a part of normal obligations of civilians.

Article 45
The Right of Striking

(1) The right to strike is acknowledged. Strikes may be started only if aimed at defending the economic, social and professional interests of employees.

(2) The law will establish the conditions requested in the exercise of this right, as well as the responsibility involved in the illegal start of strikes.

Article 46
The Right of Private Property and Its Protection

(1) The right to possess private property and the debts incurred by the State are guaranteed.

(2) No one may be expropriated except for reasons dictated by public necessity, as established by law and against just and appropriate compensation made in advance.

(3) No assets legally acquired may be confiscated. The effective presumption is that of legal acquirement.

(4) Goods destined for, used or resulted from crimes or offenses may be confiscated only as established by law.

(5) The right of private property carries with it the duty to observe the roles regarding the protection of the environment, the maintenance of good neighbourly relations and the observance of all the other duties that have to be fulfilled by owners of private property under the law.

(6) The right to inherit private property is guaranteed.

Article 47
The Right of Receiving Social Assistance and Protection

(1) The State is obliged to take action aimed at ensuring that every person has a decent standard of living, whereby good health and welfare based on available food, clothing, shelter, medical care, and social services are secured for that person and his/her family.

(2) All citizens have the right to be insured against such adversities as: unemployment, disease, disability, widowhood, old age or other situations where, due to causes beyond one's control one loses the source or means of obtaining the necessities of life.

Article 48
Family

(1) The family is the natural and fundamental constituent of society and as such has the right to be protected by the State and by society.

(2) The family is founded on the freely consented marriage of husband and wife, on the spouses equality of rights and on the duty of parents to ensure their children's upbringing and education.

(3) The law shall establish under which conditions a marriage may be concluded, terminated or annulled.

(4) Children have a duty to look after their parents and help them in need.

Article 49
Protection of Family and Orphaned Children

(1) By economic and other actions the State shall support the formation and development of families, and the fulfillment of their duties.

(2) The State shall protect the motherhood, the children and the young and promote the development of the institutions required to put that protection into effect.

(3) All efforts aimed at maintaining, bringing up and educating orphaned children and those children deprived of parental care constitute the responsibility of the State and of society. The state promotes and supports charitable activities for the benefit of these children.

Article 50
Protection of Mothers, Children and Young People

(1) Mothers and children have the right of receiving special protection and care. All children, including those born out of wedlock, shall enjoy the benefits of the same social assistance.

(2) Children and young people enjoy a special form of assistance in the enforcement of their rights.

(3) The State shall grant the required allowances for children and the aid needed for the care of sick or disabled children. The law shall provide for other forms of social assistance for children and the young.

(4) Both the exploitation of minors and their misuse in activities endangering their health, moral conduct, life or normal development are forbidden.

(5) It is the duty of the public authorities to establish the conditions enabling the young people to take part freely in the social, economic, cultural and sporting life of the country.

Article 51
Protection of Disabled Persons

(1) The disabled persons shall enjoy a special form of protection from the whole of society. The State shall ensure that normal conditions exist for medical treatment and rehabilitation, education, training and social integration of disabled persons.

(2) Except for those cases that are provided for under the law nobody may be submitted to forced medical treatment.

Article 52
Right of Petitioning

(1) All citizens have the right to apply to public authority by way of petitions formulated in behalf of the applicants.

(2) Legally established organizations may petition exclusively in behalf of the associations or bodies they represent.

Article 53
Rights of Persons Aggrieved by Public Authority

(1) Any person, whose rights have been trespassed upon in any way by public authority through an administrative ruling or lack of timely legal reply to an application, is entitled to obtain acknowledgement of those rights, the cancellation of the ruling and payment of damages.

(2) The State is under patrimonial liability as foreseen by the law for any prejudice or injury caused in lawsuits through errors of the police or the judiciary.

Article 54
Restricting the Exercise of Certain Rights or Freedoms

(1) No laws suppressing or violating fundamental human rights and freedoms shall be adopted in the Republic of Moldova.

(2) The exercise of certain rights or freedoms may be restricted only under the laws which meet generally accepted principles of the international law, and only as required in cases like: the defense of national security, of territorial integrity, of economic welfare of the country, of public order, preventing mass disorders and offences, of protecting citizens rights, freedoms, and personal dignity, preventing the disclosure of confidential information or guaranteeing judiciary authority and impartiality.

(3) Provisions of paragraph (2) do not provide for the infringement of the rights stipulated in Articles 20-24.

(4) The restrictions enforced must be in proportion to the situation that caused it, and may not affect the existence of that right or liberty.

[Art.54 in the wording of the Law no.351-XV of 12.07.2001]

 

Chapter III.

Fundamental Duties

 

Article 55
Exercise of Rights and Freedoms as Part of An Integrated System

Every citizen has to exercise his/her constitutional rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing others' rights and freedoms.

[Art.55 in the wording of the Law no.351-XV of 12.07.2001]

Article 56
Allegiance to the Country

(1)Allegiance and loyalty to the are sacred.

(2) Citizens entrusted with the holding of public office, as well as the military, are under the responsibility to fulfil faithfully their duties towards the state, and in given situations shall also take the oath as requested by law.

Article 57
Defense of Motherland

(1)It is the right and the sacred duty of every citizen to defend one's motherland.

(2) The national armed forces constitute the framework for performing military services, for national defense, guarding the borders, and maintaining public older under the law.

Article 58
Financial Contributions

(1) All citizens are under obligation to contribute by way of taxes and financial impositions to public expenditure.

(2) The system of legal taxation must ensure a just distribution of fiscal burdens over the population.

(3)All taxation other than that established by law is forbidden.

Article 59
Protection of Environment and Public Monuments

It is the duty of every citizen to protect the natural environment, and to preserve and protect the country's historical and cultural sites and monuments.

 

Title III.
Public Authorities

Chapter IV. Parliament

Section 1. Structure and Functioning

 

Article 60
Parliament as the Supreme Representative Body and Legislative Authority

(1) Parliament is the supreme representative body of the people and the sole legislative authority of the State in the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Parliament consists of 101 members.

Article 61
Parliament Elections

(1) The members of Parliament are elected by voting based on universal, equal, direct, secret and freely expressed suffrage.

(2) The organic law shall establish the way of organizing and holding elections.

(3) The election of Parliament members will be started not later than 3 months from the end of the previous mandate or from the dissolution of the previous Parliament.

Article 62
Validation of Members Mandates

On proposal submitted by the Central Electoral Board the Constitutional Court will decide upon the validation or invalidation of a Parliament member's mandate, whenever electoral legislation has been transgressed.

Article 63
Mandate Duration

(1) The members of Parliament are elected for a 4-year term, which may be extended by organic law, and in the event of war or a national disaster.

(2) Parliament shall be convened in session by the President of the Republic of Moldova within at most 30 days from election day.

(3) The mandate of the current Parliament may be extended until the structure of the new Parliament has been completed and the latter can meet in full session. During this period no amendments may be brought to the Constitution, and no organic law may he adopted, changed or abrogated.

(4) The legislative projects and proposals contained in the agenda of the previous Parliament will be carried over onto the agenda of the new Parliament.

Article 64
Internal Structure

(1) The structure, organization and functioning of Parliament are established by internal regulations. The Parliament approves the national budget and, with it, its own financial resources.

(2) The President of Parliament is elected by secret ballot based on the majority of votes cast by members for a term of office equal to that of Parliament. The Parliament may revoke the President at any time by secret ballot based on a two-thirds majority of votes cast by members.

(3) On consultations with parliamentary factions the President of Parliament calls for the election of Parliament's Vice-Presidents.

Article 65
Public character of settings

(1) Parliament's sessions are public.

(2) The Parliament may decide to hold certain sessions behind closed doors.

Article 66
Basic Powers

The following are Parliament's basic powers:

a.                   To pass laws, decisions and motions;

b.                  To declare the holding of referendums;

c.                   To provide legislative interpretations and ensure the legislative unity of regulations throughout the country;

d.                  To approve the main directions of the state's internal and external policy;

e.                   To approve the state's military doctrine;

f.                    To exercise parliamentary control over executive power in the ways and within the limits provided for by the Constitution;

g.                   To ratify, denounce, suspend and abrogate the action of the international treaties concluded by the Republic of Moldova;

h.                   To approve and control the national budget;

i.                     To supervise and control the allocation of State loans, the aid of an economic or other nature granted to foreign countries, the conclusion of agreements concerning State loans or credits obtained from foreign sources;

j.                    To elect and nominate State officials as foreseen by law;

k.                  To approve the orders, medals and awards of the Republic of Moldova;

l.                     To declare partial or general mobilization of the armed forces;

m.                 To declare the states of national emergency, martial law, and war;

n.                   To initiate investigations and hearings concerning any matters touching upon the interests of society;

o.                  To suspend the activity of local institutions of public administration under the law;

p.                  To pass bills of amnesty;

q.                  To exercise other powers, as provided for by the Constitution and the Law.

Article 67
Parliament Sessions

(1) Parliament meets in two ordinary sessions per year. The first parliamentary session starts in February and may not go beyond the end of July. The second parliamentary session starts in September and may not go beyond the end of December.

(2) Parliament may also meet in extraordinary or special meetings at the specific request of the President of the Republic of Moldova, of the President of Parliament or of a third of the members.

Section 2. The Status of Parliament Members

Article 68
Representational Mandate

(1) In the exercise of their power the members of Parliament are in the service of the people.

(2) Imperative mandates shall be null and void.

Article 69
Mandate of Parliament members

(1) The members of Parliament shall enter upon the exercise of their mandate under condition of prior validation.

(2) The powers ascribed to any member of Parliament cease with the lawful assembly of the newly-elected Parliament, on resignation on the part of that member, on mandate suspension, also in cases of incompatibility or death.

Article 70
Incompatibilities and Immunities

(1) The quality and rights ascribed to members of Parliament are incompatible with the holding of another remunerated position, except for didactic or scientific activity.

(2) Other possible incompatibilities shall be established by organic law.

(3) Except in cases of flagrant infringement of law members of Parliament may not be detained for questioning, put under arrest, searched or put on trial without Parliament's assent, after prior hearing of the member in question.

[Art.70 completed via the Law no.1470-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]

Article 71
Independence of Opinion

Members of Parliament may not be prosecuted or tried by law for their votes or opinions expressed in the exercise of their mandate.

Section 3. Legislation and Acts of Parliament

Article 72
Classification of Laws

(1) Parliament is endowed with the powers to pass constitutional, organic and ordinary laws.

(2) Constitutional laws are aimed at revising the Constitution.

(3) The purpose of the organic laws is to direct and control:

a.                   the working of the electoral system;

b.                  the organization and carrying out of referendums;

c.                   the organization and functioning of Parliament;

d.                  the organization and functioning of Government;

e.                   the organization and functioning of the Constitutional Court, the Higher Magistrates Council, the judiciary and courts of administrative judicature;

f.                    the organization of local administration, of the national territory, and the general functioning of local autonomy;

g.                   the organization and functioning of political parties;

h.                   the manner of selecting exclusive economic zones;

i.                     the legal status of private property and inheritance;

j.                    the general implementation of the working relations and social protection, and the functioning of trades-unions;

k.                  the general organization of the educational system;

l.                     the general status of religious worship;

m.                 the states of national emergency, martial law and war,

n.                   the criminal offenses, the punishments requested, and the ways of executing the latter,

o.                  the granting of amnesty and pardon;

p.                  other provinces where the Constitution provides for the necessity of passing organic laws;

q.                  other provinces where Parliament recommends the passing of organic laws.

(4) Basically, social relations are the province of ordinary law, excepting those for whose regulation constitutional and organic laws have been appointed.

Article 73
Legislative Initiative

The right to initiate legislation belongs to members of Parliament, the President of the Republic of Moldova and the Government.

Article 74
The Passing of Laws and Resolutions

(1) Organic laws shall be passed by majority vote based on at least two ballots.

(2) Ordinary laws and resolutions shall be passed by the majority of the votes cast by the members present in session.

(3) Draft laws submitted by Government, as well as legislative proposals submitted by deputies and accepted by the former, are examined by Parliament in the way and according to the priorities established by the Government, includingly urgency hearings/procedure. Other legislative proposals shall be examined as established.

(4) The laws passed shall be submitted to the President of the Republic of Moldova for promulgation.

Article 75
The Referendum

(1) Problems of utmost gravity or urgency confronting the Moldovan society or State shall be resolved by referendum. (2) The decisions passed in consequence of the results produced by the republican referendum have supreme judicial power.

Article 76
The Coming into Force of Laws

Laws shall be published in the "Monitorol Oficial" of the Republic of Moldova and shall come into force either on its publication date or on the date mentioned in its original text. Unless published, the law is nonexistent.

 

Chapter V.

The President of the Republic of Moldova

 

Article 77
The President of the Republic of Moldova - the Head of the State

(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of the State.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova represents the State and is the guarantor of national sovereignty, independence, of the unity and territorial integrity of the nation.

Article 78
Election of the President

(1) President of the Republic of Moldova shall be elected by the secret vote of the Parliament.

(2) Any citizen of the Republic of Moldova over 40 years of age with the right to vote that has been living in the country for at least 10 years and speaks the State language can run for the office of President of the Republic of Moldova.

(3) The candidate obtaining at least 3/5ths of the votes cast by elected deputies shall be considered elected. If no candidate obtains the required number of votes, a second ballot shall be held to choose from the two first-placed candidates, in the order of the number of votes cast for them in the first ballot.

(4) If after the second ballot no candidate obtains the required number of votes, repeat elections shall be conducted.

(5) If after repeat elections the President of the Republic of Moldova is not elected, the incumbent President shall dissolve the Parliament and establish the date of Parliamentary elections.

(6) An appropriate organic law shall determine the procedure of electing the President of the Republic of Moldova.

Article 79
Mandate Validation and Taking of the Oath

(1)The Constitutional Court will validate the result of the presidential election.

(2) (2) Within 45 days from the date when elections were completed the successful presidential candidate shall take the following oath before Parliament and the Constitutional Court:
" I solemnly swear to devote ail my personal strength and abilities to the advancement and prosperity of the Republic of Moldova, to always abide by the Constitution and the laws of the country, to defend democracy, tbe fundamental rights and freedoms of the Republic of Moldova if incompatible man, and the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Moldova"

Article 80
Term of Office

(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova takes office on the oath- taking day and his term has a duration of 4 years.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova exercises his mandate until the next President is sworn in.

(3) By organic law the mandate of the President of the Republic of Moldova may be prolonged in the event of war or catastrophe.

(4) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova may be held by the same person for no more than two consecutive terms.

Article 81
Incompatibilities and Immunities

(1) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova is incompatible with holding another remunerated position.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova will enjoy immunity from civil action for any personal opinions expressed while in the execution of his mandate.

(3) Based on the majority of at least two thirds of the votes cast by its members, Parliament may decide to indict the President of the Republic of Moldova if the latter commits an offense. In such a case it is the Supreme Court of Justice which has the competence to sue under the rule of law, and the President will be removed from office on the very day that the court sentence convicting him has been passed as definitive.

Article 84
Messages

(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova can take part in Parliament's proceedings and debates.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova will address Parliament messages concerning the main issues of national interest.

Article 85
Dissolution of Parliament

(1) In cases where an impossibility has been reached to form the Government or a situation has been encountered whereby the passing of new legislation has been deadlocked for 3 consecutive months, the President of the Republic of Moldova, on consultations with parliamentary groups, may dissolve Parliament.

(2) If within 45 days from a first presidential request for a vote of confidence to form a new government a second such request been aim rejected by Parliament, the President may dissolve the Parliament.

(3) The Parliament may be dissolved only once in the course of a year.

(4) Parliament may not be dissolved during the President's last 6 months of office, except for the case provided in paragraph (5) of Article 78, during a state of emergency, martial law, or war.

Article 86
Powers Regarding Foreign Policy

(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova is empowered to enter official discussions, take part in negotiations, conclude in the name of the Republic of Moldova the international treaties resulting therefrom, and submit those treaties to Parliament for ratification.

(2) On specific proposals submitted to him by Government, the President of the Republic of Moldova can accredit and revoke the Republic of Moldova's diplomatic representatives, as well as approve the establishment, disestablishment, and ranking of diplomatic missions abroad.

(3) The President of the Republic of Moldova receives letters of accreditation or revocation of foreign diplomatic envoys to Moldova.

Article 87
Powers Regarding National Defense

(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova is the Commander-in- Chief of the armed forces.

(2) On prior approval from Parliament the President of the Republic of Moldova can declare partial or general mobilization armed forces.

(3) In the event of armed aggression against the country, the President of the Republic of Moldova takes the steps required to repel aggression, and to declare a state of war, and informs Parliament without delay on the situation. If Parliament is not in session, the President convenes by right the Parliament within 24 hours from the time when the aggression was launched.

(4) In order to ensure national security and public order the President of the Republic of Moldova can under the rule of law also take other steps.

Article 88
Other Powers

The President of the Republic of Moldova is also empowered to:

a.                   Award medals and titles of honour;

b.                  Award such supreme military ranks as provided for by the law;

c.                   Find solutions to problems concerning the rights of citizenship of the Republic of Moldova and grant political asylum;

d.                  Appoint public officials under the law;

e.                   Grant individual pardon or amnesty;

f.                    Request the citizens of the Republic of Moldova to express their will by way of referendum on matters of national interest;

g.                   Award diplomatic ranks;

h.                   Award higher ranks to officials holding positions with Magistrates' Courts and Civil Courts, and to other civil servantsthe law;

i.                     suspend those Acts of Government that run against existing legislation until a final decision has been passed by the Constitutional Court;

j.                    Exercise other powers as foreseen by the law.

Article 89
Suspension from Office

(1) In the event the President of the Republic of Moldova commits serious offences infringing upon constitutional provisions he may be suspended from office by the vote of two thirds elected deputies in Parliament.

(2) The motion requesting the suspension from office may be initiated by at least one third of deputies, and it must be brought to the knowledge of the President without delay. The President may give explanations on the actions for which he is being censured before Parliament and the Constitutional Court.

Article 90
Vacancy of Office

(1) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova may become vacant in consequence of expiry of the presidential mandate of resignation from office, removal from office, definite impossibility of executing his duties, or death.

(2) The request to remove the President of the Republic of Moldova from office will be brought forward in Parliament, which will pass a decision on that request.

(3) Impossibility to exercise the mandate of the President of the Republic of Moldova for more than 60 days, shall be confirmed by the Constitutional Court within 30 days of the notification.

(4) Within 2 months from the date when the presidential office was announced as vacant elections for a new President will be held in accordance with the law.

Article 91
Interim Office

When the office of the President of the Republic of Moldova becomes vacant or the President has been ousted, or finds himself in the temporary impossibility of discharging his duties, the responsibility of the office shall devolve ad interim on the President of Parliament or the Prime-Minister, in that priority order.

Article 92
Responsibility of Interim President

Should the person acting as interim President of the Republic of Moldova commit grave offenses infringing upon constitutional provisions article 89 paragraph (1) and article 91 will apply.

Article 93
Promulgation of Laws

(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova promulgates the laws.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova has the right, whenever he objects against a given law, to submit it within at most two weeks to Parliament for reexamination. Should Parliament stick to its previously passed decision, then the President must promulgate the law.

Article 94
Presidential Acts

(1) In the exercise of his powers the President of the Republic of Moldova issues decrees whose execution is compulsory throughout the entire territory of the state. These decrees shall be published in the "Monitorul Oficial" of the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Those decrees issued by the President that fall under the provisions of article 86 paragraph (2) and article 87 paragraph (?) (2), (3) and (4) must be countersigned by the Prime-Minister also.

Article 95
Budget of Presidential Institution. Compensation and Other Rights

(1) The budget of the presidential institution shall be submitted to Parliament for approval and shall be included in the budget.

(2) The law will determine the level of compensation and the other rights the President is entitled to.

 

Chapter VI.

The Government

 

Article 96
The Role of Government

(1) It is the role of Government to carry out the domestic and foreign policy of the State and to apply general control over the work of public administration.

(2) A specific programme of activities approved by Parliament will constitute the guidelines which Government will use in the exercise of its powers.

Article 97
Structure of Government

The Government consists of a prime-minister, a first vice-prime-minister, vice- prime-ministers of ministers and other members, as determined by organic law.

Article 98
Investiture

(1) After consulting parliamentary factions, the President of the Republic of Moldova designates a candidate for the office of Prime Minister.

(2) Within 15 days from his designation, the candidate for the office of Prime-Minister will request a vote of confidence for Parliament regarding his work programme and the entire list of Government members.

(3) Parliament will debate in joint session upon both the programme and the list of Government members and will grant Government the requested vote of confidence based on a majority vote of the elected deputies.

(4) Based on the Parliament confidence vote, the President of the Republic of Moldova appoints the Government.

(5) Government enters into the execution of its powers on the very day when its members take the oath before the President Republic of Moldova.

(6) Upon Government reshuffle or vacancy of a position, the President of the Republic of Moldova revokes and appoints some members of the Government, at the proposal of the Prime Minister.

Article 99
Incompatibilities

(1) The office of government member is incompatible with the holding of another remunerated position.

(2) Other incompatibilities will be specified by organic law.

Article 100
Termination of Government Membership

The office of a Government member ends in cases of resignation, revocation, incompatibility or death.

Article 101
The Prime-Minister

(1) The Prime-Minister leads the Government and coordinates the activity of its members, while respecting the powers delegated to them.

(2) Upon the impossibility of the Prime Minister to exercise his duties, or upon his death, the President of the Republic of Moldova shall designate another Government member as an interim Prime Minister until the formation of a new Government. Should the Prime-Minister resume his activity within the Government structure in the interim period, then the temporary character of his inability to fulfill his duties also ceases.

(3) A resignation on the part of the Prime-Minister leads to the resignation of the whole Government.

Article 102
Acts of Government

(1) The Government issues resolutions, ordinances and prescriptions.

(2) Resolutions are issued for implementation of the laws.

(3) Ordinances are issued in compliance with Article 1062.

(4) Resolutions and ordinances issued by the Government are signed by the Prime Minister, countersigned by the ministers bearing the responsibility to enforce them and shall be published in the Official Monitor of the Republic of Moldova. Failure to publish the latter results in the annulment of the resolution or ordinance.

(5) Prescriptions are issued by the Prime Minister for organizing Government activities.

Article 103
Termination of Mandate

(1) The Government is empowered to exercise its mandate up to the date that has been officially sanctioned for the holding parliamentary elections.

(2) In cases where Parliament has passed a vote of no confidence in the current Government, or the Primer Minister has been removed from office, or as provided for by paragraph (1) above, the Government shall only control the administration of the public affaire until the new Government has been sworn in.

Chapter VII. The Parlament - Government Interrelationship

Article 104
Reporting to Parliament

(1) The Government is responsible before Parliament, its committees and its individual members for supplying them with all information and documents that may be requested.

(2) The access of Government members to parliamentary proceedings is ensured, and their presence may be obligatory if so requested.

Article 105
Questioning and Interpellating

1) Both the Government as a whole and each one of its members are obliged to reply to the questions and interpellations raised by Parliament members.

(2) Parliament may pass a motion to substantiate its position vis-a-vis the issue that has caused an interpellation.

Article 106
Motion of No Confidence

(1) If initiated by at least a quarter of the members present in session and based on their majority vote) Parliament may carry a motion of no confidence in the Government.

(2) The initiative to carry a motion of no confidence in the Government will be examined within 3 days from the date when it was brought before Parliament.

Article 1061
Government liability

(1) Government may assume responsibility before Parliament for a certain program, general policy or draft law.

(2) Government shall be ousted, provided the motion of censure submitted within three days of presenting the program, general policy or draft law, is voted in compliance with Article 106.

(3) Unless Government is ousted in compliance with paragraph (2), the presented draft law shall be considered adopted, whereas the program or general policy shall become binding on the Government.

Article 1062
Legal delegation

(1) For implementing Government program of activities, at its proposal Parliament may adopt a special law entitling Government to issue ordinances in the domains other than subjects of organic laws.

(2) Entitling law has to stipulated the domain and the term for issuing ordinances.

(3) Ordinances shall enter into force upon their publication, without being promulgated.

(4) Provided entitling law specifically stipulates so, ordinances shall be approved by Parliament. The draft law on approving the ordinances shall be submitted within the term set in the entitling law. Failure to observe the term results in annulment of the ordinance. Unless Parliament rejects the draft law on approving the ordinance, the later shall remain in force.

(5) After expiration of the term set for issuing ordinances, the latter may be abrogated, suspended or modified only by law.

 

Chapter VIII. Public Administration

 

Article 107
Specialized Central Public Administration

(1) Ministries constitute the state's specialized agencies. They put into practice under the law the Government's policy, decisions and orders, exercise control over their areas of competence and are answerable for their activities.

(2) In order to manage, coordinate and control the national economy, as well as other areas outside the direct responsibility of ministries, other administrative authorities may be get up in accordance with the law.

Article 108
The Armed Forces

(1) The armed forces are subordinated solely to the will of the nation, and their purpose is to safeguard the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the country, as well as the constitutional democracy.

(2) The structure of the national defense system will be determined by organic law.

Article 109
Basic Principles of Local Public Administration

(1) Public administration as manifested in the administrative/territorial units is based on the principles of local autonomy, of decentralization of public services, of the eligibility of local public administration authorities and of consulting the citizenry on local problems of special interest.

(2) The concept of autonomy encompasses both the organization and functioning of local public administration, as well as the management of the communities represented by that administration.

(3) The enforcement of the principles described above may not detract from the unitary character of the State.

Article 110
Administrative/Territorial Organization

From the administrative point of view the territory of the Republic of Moldova is structured in districts, towns and villages. Certain towns may under the law be declared municipalities.

Article 111
Special Autonomy Statutes

(1) The places on the left bank of the Nistru river, as well as certain other places in the south of the Republic of Moldova may be granted special forms of autonomy according to special statutory provisions of organic law.

(2) The organic laws establishing special statutes for the places mentioned under paragraph (1) above may be amended if three fifths of the Parliament members support such amendments.

Article 112
Village and Town Authorities

(1) At village and town level the public administration authorities through which local autonomy is executed are represented by the elected local councils and mayors.

(2) The local councils and the mayors operate under the law as autonomous administrative authorities and are assigned the task of solving public affairs in villages and towns.

(3) The ways of electing local councils and mayors, as well as their powers and competence's shall be established by law.

Article 113
District Councils

(1) The district council coordinates the activity of the village and town councils to achieve public service at district level.

(2) The district council will be elected and will work in accordance with the law.

(3) The interrelationships of public authority

 

Chapter IX. Judicial Authority

Section 1. Courts of Law

 

Article 114
Administration of Justice

Justice shall be administered in the name of the law by courts of law only.

Article 115
Courts of Law

(1) Justice shall be administered by the Supreme Court of Justice, the Court of Appeal and the courts of law.

(2) To hear certain categories of cases special courts may be set up under the law.

(3) It is forbidden to set up courts of exception.

(4) The structure of the courts of law, their areas of competence and the corresponding judicial procedures shall be established by organic law.

[Art.115 modified via the Law no.1471-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]

Article 116
Status of Judges

(1) Judges sitting in the courts of law are independent, impartial and irremovable under the law.

(2) The judges sitting in the courts of law are appointed by the President of the Republic of Moldova following a proposal submitted to him by the Higher Magistrates Council. Those judges who have passed the judicature entry test are appointed in their positions at first for a 5-year term. Upon the expiration of the five year term, judges shall be appointed for a term of office, which expires with their reaching the age limit, established by law.

(3) Both the Chairpersons and Deputy Chairpersons of the courts shall be appointed for a four year term by the President following a proposal submitted by the Higher Magistrates Council.

(4) Both the Chairpersons and Deputy Chairpersons of the Supreme Court of Justice shall be appointed for a four year term by the Parliament following a proposal submitted by the Higher Magistrates Council. They must provide evidence of work experience in courts of law that is not less than 10 years long.

(5) Judges may be promoted or transferred at their own consent only.

(6) Judges may be punished as provided for under the rule of law.

(7) The office of judge is incompatible with holding any other public or private remunerated position, except in the area of teaching or scientific research.

[Art.116 in the wording of the Law no.1471-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]
[Art.116 modified via the Law no.957-XIII of 19.07.96]

Article 117
Public Character of Legal Proceedings

Legal hearings in all courts of law are public. Cases may be heard behind closed doors only as stipulated by law under compliance with all established legal procedures.

Article 118
Language Used in Hearings and Right to Use an Interpreter

(1) Legal cases will be heard in the Moldovan language.

(2) Those persons who do not know or are unable to speak Moldovan have the right to take knowledge of all documents and items on file and to talk to the court through an interpreter.

(3) In accordance with the law legal hearings may also be conducted in a language that is found to be acceptable by the majority of the persons participating in the hearing.

Article 119
Appealing

The parties involved in a case and the state authorities may appeal against sentences pronounced in courts of law in accordance with the law.

Article 120
Compulsory Character of Sentences and of Other Final Legal Rulings

It is compulsory to abide by the sentences and the other final legal rulings pronounced in courts of law and to cooperate with the latter at their specific request during trials, the execution of sentences and other final rulings of justice.

Article 121
The Budget of the Courts of Law, Compensation and Other Rights

(1) The budget of the courts of law is approved by Parliament and is included in the national budget.

(2) The compensations and other rights of judges are established by law.

(3) The courts of law have control over the police forces placed at their disposal.

 

Section 2. The Higher Magistrates' Council

 

Article 122
Composition

(1) The Higher Magistrates' Council is composed of judges and accredited university professors whose mandate is valid for 4 years.

(2) The following belong by right to the Higher Magistrates' Court the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Minister of Justice, and the Prosecutor General.

[Art.122 in the wording of the Law no.1471-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]

Article 123
Powers

(1) The Higher Magistrates Council in accordance with regulations established in the organization of the judiciary performs the appointments, transfers, promotions of judges, as well as the disciplinary actions against them.

(2) The organization and operation of the Higher Magistrates Council shall be established via an organic law.

[Art.123 in the wording of the Law no.1471-XV of 21.11.02, enforced on 12.12.02]

Section 3. The Public Prosecution Office

Article 124
Powers and Structure

(1) The Prosecution represents general interests of the society, defends legal order, the rights and freedoms of citizens, conducts and institutes proceedings, represents prosecution in courts in compliance with the law.

(2) The public prosecution system is composed of the General Prosecution Office, territorial prosecution offices and specialized prosecution offices.

(3) The structure, powers and activities of the prosecution offices are established by law.

Article 125
Mandate of Public Prosecutors

(1) The Prosecutor General is appointed by Parliament following a proposal submitted to the latter by its President.

(2) The other public prosecutors are subordinated to the Prosecutor General, and appointed by him.

(3) The public prosecutors receive their mandate for a period of 5 years.

(4) The office of public prosecutor is incompatible with holding any other remunerated position, be it public or private, except in teaching or scientific research.

(5) In exercising their powers public prosecutors may submit before the law only.

 

Title IV.
National Economy and Public Finance

 

Article 126
The Economy

(1) The economy of the Republic of Moldova is a socially-orientated market economy based on the coexistence of freely competing private and public properties.

(2) The State must ensure:

a.                   the regulation of economic activity, and the administration of the public property belonging to the State under the law;

b.                  the freedom of trading and of entrepreneurial activity, the protection of loyal competition, the setting up of an appropriate framework for developing all factors capable of stimulating production;

c.                   the protection of the national interests involved in economic, financial and currency exchange activities;

d.                  the promotion of national scientific research;

e.                   the national exploitation of the soil and of other natural resources, in harmony with the national interests;

f.                    the restoration and protection of the environment, and the maintenance of ecological balance;

g.                   the increase in the number of the people employed, the establishment of conditions adequate for improving the quality of life;

h.                   the inviolability of investments made by physical and juridical entities, including those from abroad.

Article 127
Property

(1) The State protects property.

(2) The State guarantees everybody the right to possess property in any such form as requested by the owner, as long as that form of property does not conflict with the interests of society.

(3) Public property belongs to the State or to the administrative/territorial units.

(4) All underground resources, the air space, the waters and forests used for the benefit of the public at large, the natural resources of given economic regions and of the continental shelf, the communication ways, as well as other assets stipulated by law, constitute the exclusive province of public property.

Article 128
Property of Aliens and Stateless Persons

(1) In the Republic of Moldova the property of other states, of international organizations, of foreign citizens and of stateless persons is protected by law.

(2) The law determines the manner and conditions under which the right of property can be exercised by physical and juridical entities of foreign extraction, and by stateless persons throughout the territory of the Republic of Moldova.

Article 129
External Economic Activities

(1) Parliament approves the main directions of external economic activities, the principles guiding the utilization of foreign loans and credits.

(2) The Government ensures the protection of national interests involved in external economic activities, and depending on the demands of national interest ensures either a free-trade policy or a protectionist one.

Article 130
Financial System and Crediting

(1) The law specifies the formation, administration, utilization and control of the State's financial resources, of the administrative/territorial units, and of public institutions.

(2) The national currency of the Republic of Moldova is the Moldovan leu (pl. lei).

(3) The National Bank of the Republic of Moldova has the exclusive right of mintage. The minting of a money issue can be effected by act of Parliament only.

Article 131
National Public Budget

(1) The national public budget is made up of the national budget, the national social security budget, and the local budgets of districts, towns and villages.

(2) The government issues an annual draft of the national budget, and of the social security budget, which it submits separately to Parliament for approval. Supplementary budgets formed in addition to the national budget shall also be submitted to Parliament for approval.

(3) If the national budget and the national social security budget have not been approved by at least 3 days before expiry of the current budget exercise, both the national and the national social security budgets continue to apply until the new budgets have been approved.

(4) Any legislation or amendment increasing or reducing budget incomes or loans, as well as increasing or reducing budgetary expenses, may be adopted only after Government approval.

(5) The budgets of districts, towns and villages shall be issued, approved and executed in accordance with the law.

(6) No budget expenditure may be approved without prior identification of a corresponding source of funding for it.

Article 132
Fiscal System

(1) All taxes, duties, and other revenue of the national budget, including the national social security budget, also the district, town and village budgets shall be established under the law by the representative agencies, as required.

(2) Any other types of taxation are forbidden.

Article 133
Court of Audit

(1) The Court of Audit controls the ways of creating, administering and utilizing public financial resources.

(2) The Court of Audit is composed of 7 members.

(3) The President of the Court of Audit is appointed for a 5-year term by Parliament on proposal submitted by the President of Parliament.

(4) The Court of Audit submits annually to Parliament a report on the administration and utilization of public financial resources.

(5) The Court of Audits other powers, as well as its structure and functioning, will be established by organic law.

 

Title V.
Constitutional Court

 

Article 134
Statute

(1) The Constitutional court is the sole authority of constitutional judicature in the Republic of Moldova.

(2) The Constitutional Court is independent of any other public authority and obeys only the Constitution.

(3) The Constitutional Court guarantees the supremacy of the Constitution, enforces the practical implementation of the principle residing the separation of the State powers into the legislative, executive and judicial powers, and guarantees the responsibility of State towards the citizen, and also of the citizen towards the state.

Article 135
Powers

(1) The Constitutional Court:

a.                   enforces on notification constitutionality control over laws, ordinances of Parliament, Presidential decrees, decisions and orders of Government, as well as international treaties endorsed by the Republic of Moldova;

b.                  explains and clarifies the Constitution;

c.                   formulates its position on initiatives aiming at revising the Constitution;

d.                  confirms the results of republican referendums;

e.                   confirms the results of parliamentary and presidential elections in the Republic of Moldova;

f.                    ascertains the circumstances justifying the dissolution of Parliament, the suspension from office of the President of the Republic of Moldova or the interim office of the President of the Republic of Moldova, as well as impossibility of the President of the Republic of Moldova to exercise his duties for more than 60 days;

g.                   solves exceptional cases of non-constitutionality of judicial acts, as signalled by the Supreme Court of Justice;

h.                   decides over matters dealing with the constitutionality of parties.

(2) The Constitutional Court carries out its activities on initiatives started by the legal entities mentioned in the law regarding the Constitutional Court.

Article 136
Structure

(1) The Constitutional Court is composed of 6 judges, who are appointed for a 6-year mandate.

(2) The Parliament, the Government and the Higher Magistrates Council appoint 2 judges each.

(3) The judges of the Constitutional Court elect its president by secret ballot.

Article 137
Independence

For the duration of their mandate the judges of the Constitutional Court are irremovable, independent, and obey only the Constitution.

Article 138
Appointment Qualifications

The judges of the Constitutional Court must possess outstanding judicial knowledge, high professional competence and long time (at least 15 years) experience in judicature positions, in law education or scientific research.

Article 139
Incompatibilities

The office of Constitutional Court judge is incompatible with holding any other remunerated public or private position, except in education and research.

Article 140
Decisions of the Constitutional Court

(1) Laws and other regulations or parts thereof become null and void from the moment that the Constitutional Court passes the appropriate decisions to that effect.

(2) The decisions of the Constitutional Court are final and cannot be appealed against.

Article 141
Initiatives for Constitutional Revision

(1) A revision of the Constitution may be initiated by:

a.                   a number of at least 200,000 voting citizens of the Republic of Moldova. The citizens initiating a revision of the Constitution must cover with the number of their listed residencies at least a half of the nation's second level administrative-territorial units, and in their turn each of those districts and municipalities must be represented by at least 20,000 registered signers in support of the said initiative;

b.                  no less than a third of the members of Parliament;

c.                   the Government.

(2) Constitutional law projects shall be submitted to Parliament on condition that the Constitutional Court issues the appropriate recommendation supported by at least 4 judges.

Article 142
Limits of Revision

(1) The provisions regarding the sovereignty, independence and unity of the state, as well as those regarding the permanent neutrality of the State may be revised only by referendum based on a majority vote of registered voting citizens.

(2) No revision shall be allowed if it is results in the suppression of the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens, or of the guarantees of those rights and freedoms.

(3) The Constitution may not be revised under a state of national emergency, martial law or war.

Article 143
The Law on Constitutional Revision

(1) Parliament has the right to pass a law for revising the Constitution after no less than 6 months from the date when the revising initiative was submitted. This law has to be passed on a two-thirds majority.

(2) If within one year from the date when the revising initiative was submitted Parliament has not passed the appropriate constitutional law, the initiative shall be considered null and void.

 

Title VII.
Final and Transitory Provisions

Article I

(1) This Constitution shall be endorsed by Parliament and the President of the Republic of Moldova shall promulgate it within 3 days from that endorsement.

(2) The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova comes into force on 27th August 1994. On that same date the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova of 15th April 1978, including all its subsequent revisions and amendments, shall be abrogated in its entirety.

Article II

(1) The laws and other regulations retain their force only to the extent to which they do not transgress on the Constitution.

(2) Within one year from the coming into force of the present Constitution the permanent parliamentary committees, and the Government shall examine the compliance of legislation with the Constitution, and submit adequate proposals in that respect to Parliament.

Article III

(1) All state institutions in existence as of the date marking the coming into force of this Constitution retain their functionality until new institutions will be established.

(2) Parliament is made up of 104 members elected by freely expressed, universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage within the framework of political and party pluralism in accordance with the law passed on 14th October 1993. As such, Parliament remains in operation until its mandate expires, except in those cases provided for by this Constitution.

(3) The President of the Republic of Moldova is elected by freely expressed, universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage within the framework of political and party pluralism for a 5-year term, as provided for by the law of the 18th September 1991 concerning presidential elections in the Republic of Moldova. As such, the President remains in office until his mandate expires, except in those cases provided for by this Constitution.

(4) Government is invested by Parliament, and retains its powers until the expiry of its mandate, except in those cases provided for by the Constitution.

(5) Local authorities of state power and national administration remain in operation until the expiration of their mandate, except in those cases provided for by this Constitution.

(6) Judges who on the coming into force of this Constitution have been employed in courts of justice for not less than 15 years come under the protection of the principle of irremovability in accordance with article 116 paragraph (1) by presidential decree, on proposal submitted by the Minister of Justice and the President of the Supreme Court of Justice.

(7) Within 2 years from the coming into force of this Constitution, the system of the courts of jurisdiction will be reorganized by law in accordance with article 115.

Article IV

The provisions of article 25 paragraph (4) regarding the terms of detention in custody, will have no bearing until 1st January 1995 on those persons who have committed major offenses under article 7 paragraph (1) of Criminal Law.

Article V

(1) Within 6 months from the coming into force of this Constitution a Constitutional Court and a Court of Audit shall be established.

(2) For the first formation of the Constitutional Court the judges representing the Higher Magistrates' Council are appointed by the general assembly of the people's judges and the members of the Supreme Court of Justice.

Article VI

Until the establishment of the Constitutional court all cases stipulated under article 135 of this Constitution may be solved on Parliament's initiative by the Supreme Court of Justice.

Article VII

(1) The law of 1st September 1989 regarding the use of languages spoken throughout the territory of the Republic of Moldova stays in force to the extent that it does not trespass on this Constitution.

(2) The above-named law may be amended over the 7 years ensuing from the date when this Constitution has come into force, if it has been passed by a two-thirds majority.

Article VIII

Title VII, Final and Transitory Provisions is considered to be an integral part of this Constitution and has the purpose of solving those problems that are linked with its coming into force.

© GB

Trascina file per caricare

Constituţia Republicii Moldova

 

Adoptata la 29 iulie 1994

Monitorul Oficial al R.Moldova nr.1 din 18.08.1994

 

NOI, reprezentantii plenipotentiari ai poporului Republicii Moldova, deputati in Parlament,

PORNIND de la aspiratiile seculare ale poporului de a trai intr-o tara suverana, exprimate prin proclamarea independentei Republicii Moldova,

AVIND in vedere continuitatea statalitatii poporului moldovenesc in contextul istoric si etnic al devenirii lui ca natiune,

NAZUIND spre satisfacerea intereselor cetatenilor de alta origine etnica, care impreuna cu moldovenii constituie poporul Republicii Moldova,

CONSIDERIND statul de drept, pacea civica, democratia, demnitatea omului, drepturile si libertatile lui, libera dezvoltare a personalitatii umane, dreptatea si pluralismul politic valori supreme,

FIIND CONSTIENTI de responsabilitatea si obligatiile noastre fata de generatiile precedente, actuale si viitoare,

REAFIRMIND devotamentul nostru fata de valorile general- umane, dorinta de a trai in pace si buna intelegere cu toate popoarele lumii conform principiilor si normelor unanim recunoscute ale dreptului international,

adoptam Constitutia Republicii Moldova, declarind-o LEGE SUPREMA A SOCIETATII SI A STATULUI.

 

Titlul I.

Principii Generale

Articolul 1

Statul Republica Moldova

(1) Republica Moldova este un stat suveran si independent, unitar si indivizibil.

(2) Forma de guvernamint a statului este republica.

(3) Republica Moldova este un stat de drept, democratic, in care demnitatea omului, drepturile si libertatile lui libera dezvoltare a personalitatii umane, dreptatea si pluralismul politic reprezinta valori supreme si sint garantate.

Articolul 2

Suveranitatea si puterea de stat

(1) Suveranitatea nationala apartine poporului Republicii Moldova, care o exercita in mod direct si prin organele sale reprezentative, in formele stabilite de Constitutie.

(2) Nici o persoana particulara, nici o parte din popor, nici un grup social, nici un partid politic sau o alta formatiune obsteasca nu poate exercita puterea de stat in nume propriu. Uzurparea puterii de stat constituie cea mai grava crima impotriva poporului.

Articolul 3

Teritoriul

(1) Teritoriul Republicii Moldova este inalienabil.

(2) Frontierele tarii sint consfintite prin lege organica, respectindu-se principiile si normele unanim recunoscute ale dreptului international.

Articolul 4

Drepturile si libertatile omului

(1) Dispozitiile constitutionale privind drepturile si libertatile omului se interpreteaza si se aplica in concordanta cu Declaratia Universala a Drepturilor Omului, cu pactele si cu celelalte tratate la care Republica Moldova este parte.

(2) Daca exista neconcordante intre pactele si tratatele privitoare la drepturile fundamentale ale omului la care Republica Moldova este parte si legile ei interne, prioritate au reglementarile internationale.

Articolul 5

Democratia si pluralismul politic

(1) Democratia in Republica Moldova se exercita in conditiile pluralismului politic, care este incompatibil cu dictatura si cu totalitarismul.

(2) Nici o ideologie nu poate fi instituita ca ideologie oficiala a statului.

Articolul 6

Separatia si colaborarea puterilor

In Republica Moldova puterea legislativa, executiva si judecatoreasca sint separate si colaboreaza in exercitarea prerogativelor ce le revin, potrivit prevederilor Constitutiei.

Articolul 7

Constitutia, Lege Suprema

Constitutia Republicii Moldova este Legea ei Suprema. Nici o lege si nici un alt act juridic care contravine prevederilor Constitutiei nu are putere juridica.

Articolul 8

Respectarea dreptului international si a tratatelor internationale

(1) Republica Moldova se obliga sa respecte Carta Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite si tratatele la care este parte, sa-si bazeze relatiile cu alte state pe principiile si normele unanim recunoscute ale dreptului international.

(2) Intrarea in vigoare a unui tratat international continind dispozitii contrare Constitutiei va trebui precedata de o revizuire a acesteia.

Articolul 9

Principiile fundamentale privind proprietatea

(1) Proprietatea este publica si privata. Ea se constituie din bunuri materiale si intelectuale.

(2) Proprietatea nu poate fi folosita in detrimentul drepturilor, libertatilor si demnitatii omului.

(3) Piata, libera initiativa economica, concurenta loiala sint factorii de baza ai economiei.

Articolul 10

Unitatea poporului si dreptul la identitate

(1) Statul are ca fundament unitatea poporului Republicii Moldova. Republica Moldova este patria comuna si indivizibila a tuturor cetatenilor sai.

(2) Statul recunoaste si garanteaza dreptul tuturor cetatenilor la pastrarea,la dezvoltarea si la exprimarea identitatii lor etnice, culturale, lingvistice si religioase.

Articolul 11

Republica Moldova, stat neutru

(1) Republica Moldova proclama neutralitatea sa permamenta.

(2) Republica Moldova nu admite dislocarea de trupe militare ale altor state pe teritoriul sau.

Articolul 12

Simbolurile statului

(1) Republica Moldova are drapel, stema si imn.

(2) Drapelul de Stat al Republicii Moldova este tricolor: culorile sint dispuse vertical, in ordinea urmatoare, incepind de la lance: albastru, galben, rosu. In centru, pe fisia de culoare galbena, este imprimata Stema de Stat a Republicii Moldova.

(3) Stema de Stat a Republicii Moldova reprezinta un scut taiat pe orizontala avind in partea superioara cromatica rosie,in cea inferioara - albastra, incarcat cu capul de bour avind intre coarne o stea cu opt raze. Capul de bour este flancat in dreapta de o roza cu cinci petale iar in stinga de o semiluna conturnata. Toate elementele reprezentate in scut sint de aur (galbene). Scutul este plasat pe pieptul unei acvile naturale purtind in cioc o cruce de aur (acvila cruciata) si tinind in gheara dreapta o ramura verde de maslin, iar in cea stinga un sceptru de aur.

(4) Imnul de Stat al Republicii Moldova se stabileste prin lege organica.

(5) Drapelul,stema si imnul sint simbolurile de stat ale Republicii Moldova si sint ocrotite de lege.

Articolul 13

Limba de stat, functionarea celorlalte limbi

(1) Limba de stat a Republicii Moldova este limba moldoveneasca, functionind pe baza grafiei latine.

(2) Statul recunoaste si protejeaza dreptul la pastrarea, la dezvoltarea si la functionarea limbii ruse si a altor limbi vorbite pe teritoriul tarii.

(3) Statul faciliteaza studierea limbilor de circulatie internationala.

(4) Modul de functionare a limbilor pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova se stabileste prin lege organica.

Articolul 14

Capitala

Capitala Republicii Moldova este orasul Chisinau.

 

Titlul II.

Drepturile, Libertatile si Indatoririle Fundamentale

Capitolul I. Dispozitii Generale

Articolul 15

Universalitatea

Cetatenii Republicii Moldova beneficiaza de drepturile si de libertatile consacrate prin Constitutie si prin alte legi si au obligatiile prevazute de acestea.

Articolul 16

Egalitatea

(1) Respectarea si ocrotirea persoanei constituie o indatorire primordiala a statului.

(2) Toti cetatenii Republicii Moldova sint egali in fata legii si a autoritatilor publice, fara deosebire de rasa, nationalitate, origine etnica, limba, religie, sex, opinie, apartenenta politica,avere sau de origine sociala.

Articolul 17

Cetatenia Republicii Moldova

(1) Cetatenia Republicii Moldova se dobindeste, se pastreaza ori se pierde in conditiile prevazute de legea organica.

(2) Nimeni nu poate fi lipsit in mod arbitrar de cetatenia sa si nici de dreptul de a-si schimba cetatenia.

[Art.17 in redactia Legii nr.1469-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

Articolul 18

Protectia cetatenilor Republicii Moldova

(1) Cetatenii Republicii Moldova beneficiaza de protectia statului atit in tara, cit si in strainatate.

(2) Cetatenii Republicii Moldova nu pot fi extradati sau expulzati din tara.

[Art.18 in redactia Legii nr.1469-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

Articolul 19

Statutul juridic al cetatenilor straini si al apatrizilor

(1) Cetatenii straini si apatrizii au aceleasi drepturi si indatoriri ca si cetatenii Republicii Moldova, cu exceptiile stabilite de lege.

(2) Cetatenii straini si apatrizii pot fi extradati numai in baza unei conventii internationale, in conditii de reciprocitate sau in temeiul hotaririi instantei de judecata.

(3) Dreptul de azil se acorda si se retrage in conditiile legii, cu respectarea tratatelor internationale la care Republica Moldova este parte.

[Art.19 in redactia Legii nr.1469-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

Articolul 20

Accesul liber la justitie

(1) Orice persoana are dreptul la satisfactie efectiva din partea instantelor judecatoresti competente impotriva actelor care violeaza drepturile, libertatile si interesele sale legitime.

(2) Nici o lege nu poate ingradi accesul la justitie.

Articolul 21

Prezumtia nevinovatiei

Orice persoana acuzata de un delict este prezumata nevinovata pina cind vinovatia sa va fi dovedita in mod legal, in cursul unui proces judiciar public, in cadrul caruia i s-au asigurat toate garantiile necesare apararii sale.

Articolul 22

Neretroactivitatea legii

Nimeni nu va fi condamnat pentru actiuni sau omisiuni care, in momentul comiterii, nu constituiau un act delictuos. De asemenea, nu se va aplica nici o pedeapsa mai aspra decit cea care era aplicabila in momentul comiterii actului delictuos.

Articolul 23

Dreptul fiecarui om de a-si cunoaste drepturile si indatoririle

(1) Fiecare om are dreptul sa i se recunoasca personalitatea juridica.

(2) Statul asigura dreptul fiecarui om de a-si cunoaste drepturile si indatoririle. In acest scop statul publica si face accesibile toate legile si alte acte normative.

Capitolul II. Drepturile si Libertatile Fundamentale

Articolul 24

Dreptul la viata si la integritate fizica si psihica

(1) Statul garanteaza fiecarui om dreptul la viata si la integritate fizica si psihica.

(2) Nimeni nu va fi supus la torturi, nici la pedepse sau tratamente crude, inumane ori degradante.

(3) Pedeapsa cu moartea este abolita. Nimeni nu poate fi condamnat la o asemenea pedeapsa si nici executat decit numai pentru acte savirsite in timp de razboi sau de pericol iminent de razboi si numai in conditiile legii.

[Alin.3 art.24 in redactia Legii nr.351-XV din 12.07.2001]

Articolul 25

Libertatea individuala si siguranta persoanei

(1) Libertatea individuala si siguranta persoanei sint inviolabile.

(2) Perchezitionarea, retinerea sau arestarea unei persoane sint permise numai in cazurile si cu procedura prevazute de lege.

(3) Retinerea nu poate depasi 72 de ore.

[Alin.3 art.25 in redactia Legii nr.351-XV din 12.07.2001]

(4) Arestarea se face in temeiul unui mandat, emis de judecator, pentru o durata de cel mult 30 de zile. Asupra legalitatii mandatului se poate depune recurs, in conditiile legii, in instanta judecatoreasca ierarhic superioara. Termenul arestarii poate fi prelungit numai de catre judecator sau de catre instanta judecatoreasca, in conditiile legii, cel mult pina la 12 luni.

[Alin.4 art.25 in redactia Legii nr.351-XV din 12.07.2001]

(5) Celui retinut sau arestat i se aduc de indata la cunostinta motivele retinerii sau ale arestarii, iar invinuirea - in cel mai scurt termen; motivele retinerii si invinuirea se aduce la cunostinta numai in prezenta unui avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu.

(6) Eliberarea celui retinut sau arestat este obligatorie daca motivele retinerii sau arestarii au disparut.

Articolul 26

Dreptul la aparare

(1) Dreptul la aparare este garantat.

(2) Fiecare om are dreptul sa reactioneze independent, prin mijloace legitime, la incalcarea drepturilor si libertatilor sale.

(3) In tot cursul procesului partile au dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu.

(4) Amestecul in activitatea persoanelor care exercita apararea in limitele prevazute se pedepseste prin lege.

Articolul 27

Dreptul la libera circulatie

(1) Dreptul la libera circulatie in tara este garantat.

(2) Oricarui cetatean al Republicii Moldova ii este asigurat dreptul de a-si stabili domiciliul sau resedinta in orice localitate din tara, de a iesi, de a emigra si de a reveni in tara.

Articolul 28

Viata intima, familiala si privata

Statul respecta si ocroteste viata intima, familiala si privata.

Articolul 29

Inviolabilitatea domiciliului

(1) Domiciliul si resedinta sint inviolabile. Nimeni nu poate patrunde sau ramine in domiciliul sau in resedinta unei persoane fara consimtamintul acesteia.

(2) De la prevederile alineatului (1) se poate deroga prin lege in urmatoarele situatii:

a. pentru executarea unui mandat de arestare sau a unei hotariri judecatoresti;

b. pentru inlaturarea unei primejdii care ameninta viata integritatea fizica sau bunurile unei persoane;

c. pentru prevenirea raspindirii unei epidemii.

(3) Perchezitiile si cercetarile la fata locului pot fi ordonate si efectuate numai in conditiile legii.

(4) Perchezitiile in timpul noptii sint interzise,in afara de cazul unui delict flagrant.

Articolul 30

Secretul corespondentei

(1) Statul asigura secretul scrisorilor, al telegramelor, al altor trimiteri postale, al convorbirilor telefonice si al celorlalte mijloace legale de comunicare.

(2) De la prevederile alineatului (1) se poate deroga prin lege in cazurile cind aceasta derogare este necesara in interesele securitatii nationale, bunastarii economice a tarii, ordinii publice si in scopul prevenirii infractiunilor.

[Alin.2 art.30 in redactia Legii nr.351-XV din 12.07.2001]

Articolul 31

Libertatea constiintei

(1) Libertatea constiintei este garantata. Ea trebuie sa se manifeste in spirit de toleranta si de respect reciproc.

(2) Cultele religioase sint libere si se organizeaza potrivit statutelor proprii, in conditiile legii.

(3) In relatiile dintre cultele religioase sint interzise orice manifestari de invrajbire.

(4) Cultele religioase sint autonome, separate de stat si se bucura de sprijinul acestuia,inclusiv prin inlesnirea asistentei religioase in armata, in spitale, in penitenciare, in aziluri si in orfelinate.

Articolul 32

Libertatea opiniei si a exprimarii

(1) Oricarui cetatean ii este garantata libertatea gindirii, a opiniei, precum si libertatea exprimarii in public prin cuvint, imagine sau prin alt mijloc posibil.

(2) Libertatea exprimarii nu poate prejudicia onoarea, demnitatea sau dreptul altei persoane la viziune proprie.

(3) Sint interzise si pedepsite prin lege contestarea si defaimarea statului si a poporului, indemnul la razboi de agresiune, la ura nationala, rasiala sau religioasa, incitarea la discriminare,la separatism teritorial,la violenta publica, precum si alte manifestari ce atenteaza la regimul constitutional.

Articolul 33

Libertatea creatiei

(1) Libertatea creatiei artistice si stiintifice este garantata. Creatia nu este supusa cenzurii.

(2) Dreptul cetatenilor la proprietatea intelectuala,interesele lor materiale si morale ce apar in legatura cu diverse genuri de creatie intelectuala sint aparate de lege.

(3) Statul contribuie la pastrarea, la dezvoltarea si la propagarea realizarilor culturii si stiintei, nationale si mondiale.

Articolul 34

Dreptul la informatie

(1) Dreptul persoanei de a avea acces la orice informatie de interes public nu poate fi ingradit.

(2) Autoritatile publice, potrivit competentelor ce le revin, sint obligate sa asigure informarea corecta a cetatenilor asupra treburilor publice si asupra problemelor de interes personal.

(3) Dreptul la informatie nu trebuie sa prejudicieze masurile de protectie a cetatenilor sau siguranta nationala.

(4) Mijloacele de informare publica, de stat sau private,sint obligate sa asigure informarea corecta a opiniei publice.

(5) Mijloacele de informare publica nu sint supuse cenzurii.

Articolul 35

Dreptul la invatatura

(1) Dreptul la invatatura este asigurat prin invatamintul general obligatoriu,prin invatamintul liceal si prin cel profesional, prin invatamintul superior, precum si prin alte forme de instruire si de perfectionare.

(2) Statul asigura,in conditiile legii, dreptul de a alege limba de educare si instruire a persoanelor.

(3) Studierea limbii de stat se asigura in institutiile de invatamint de toate gradele.

(4) Invatamintul de stat este gratuit.

(5) Institutiile de invatamint, inclusiv cele nestatale, se infiinteaza si isi desfasoara activitatea in conditiile legii.

(6) Institutiile de invatamint superior beneficiaza de dreptul la autonomie.

(7) Invatamintul liceal, profesional si cel superior de stat este egal accesibil tuturor, pe baza de merit.

(8) Statul asigura, in conditiile legii, libertatea invatamintului religios. Invatamintul de stat este laic.

(9) Dreptul prioritar de a alege sfera de instruire a copiilor revine parintilor.

Articolul 36

Dreptul la ocrotirea sanatatii

(1) Dreptul la ocrotirea sanatatii este garantat.

(2) Minimul asigurarii medicale oferit de stat este gratuit.

(3) Structura sistemului national de ocrotire a sanatatii si mijloacele de protectie a sanatatii fizice si mentale a persoanei se stabilesc potrivit legii organice.

Articolul 37

Dreptul la un mediu inconjurator sanatos

(1) Fiecare om are dreptul la un mediu inconjurator neprimejdios din punct de vedere ecologic pentru viata si sanatate, precum si la produse alimentare si obiecte de uz casnic inofensive.

(2) Statul garanteaza fiecarui om dreptul la accesul liber si la raspindirea informatiilor veridice privitoare la starea mediului natural la conditiile de viata si de munca, la calitatea produselor alimentare si a obiectelor de uz casnic.

(3) Tainuirea sau falsificarea informatiilor despre factorii ce sint in detrimentul sanatatii oamenilor se interzice prin lege.

(4) Persoanele fizice si juridice raspund pentru daunele pricinuite sanatatii si avutului unei persoane, ca urmare a unor contraventii ecologice.

Articolul 38

Dreptul de vot si dreptul de a fi ales

(1) Vointa poporului constituie baza puterii de stat. Aceasta vointa se exprima prin alegeri libere, care au loc in mod periodic prin sufragiu universal, egal, direct, secret si liber exprimat.

(2) Cetatenii Republicii Moldova au drept de vot de la virsta de 18 ani, impliniti pina in ziua alegerilor inclusiv, exceptie facind cei pusi sub interdictie in modul stabilit de lege.

(3) Dreptul de a fi alesi le este garantat cetatenilor Republicii Moldova cu drept de vot, in conditiile legii.

Articolul 39

Dreptul la administrare

(1) Cetatenii Republicii Moldova au dreptul de a participa la administrarea treburilor publice nemijlocit, precum si prin reprezentantii lor.

(2) Oricarui cetatean i se asigura, potrivit legii, accesul la o functie publica.

Articolul 40

Libertatea intrunirilor

Mitingurile, demonstratiile, manifestarile, procesiunile sau orice alte intruniri sint libere si se pot organiza si desfasura numai in mod pasnic, fara nici un fel de arme.

Articolul 41

Libertatea partidelor si a altor organizatii social-politice

(1) Cetatenii se pot asocia liber in partide si in alte organizatii social-politice. Ele contribuie la definirea si la exprimarea vointei politice a cetatenilor si, in conditiile legii, participa la alegeri.

(2) Partidele si alte organizatii social-politice sint egale in fata legii.

(3) Statul asigura respectarea drepturilor si intereselor legitime ale partidelor si ale altor organizatii social-politice.

(4) Partidele si alte organizatii social-politice care, prin scopurile ori prin activitatea lor, militeaza impotriva pluralismului politic, a principiilor statului de drept, a suveranitatii si independentei, a integritatii teritoriale a Republicii Moldova sint neconstitutionale.

(5) Asociatiile secrete sint interzise.

(6) Activitatea partidelor constituite din cetateni straini este interzisa.

(7) Functiile publice ai caror titulari nu pot face parte din partide se stabilesc prin lege organica.

Articolul 42

Dreptul de a intemeia si de a se afilia la sindicate

(1) Orice salariat are dreptul de a intemeia si de a se afilia la sindicate pentru apararea intereselor sale.

(2) Sindicatele se constituie si isi desfasoara activitatea potrivit cu statutele lor, in conditiile legii. Ele contribuie la apararea intereselor profesionale, economice si sociale ale salariatilor.

Articolul 43

Dreptul la munca si la protectia muncii

(1) Orice persoana are dreptul la munca, la libera alegere a muncii, la conditii echitabile si satisfacatoare de munca,precum si la protectia impotriva somajului.

(2) Salariatii au dreptul la protectia muncii. Masurile de protectie privesc securitatea si igiena muncii, regimul de munca al femeilor si al tinerilor, instituirea unui salariu minim pe economie, repaosul saptaminal, concediul de odihna platit, prestarea muncii in conditii grele, precum si alte situatii specifice.

(3) Durata saptaminii de munca este de cel mult 40 de ore.

(4) Dreptul la negocieri in materie de munca si caracterul obligatoriu al conventiilor colective sint garantate.

Articolul 44

Interzicerea muncii fortate

(1) Munca fortata este interzisa.

(2) Nu constituie munca fortata:

a. serviciul cu caracter militar sau activitatile desfasurate in locul acestuia de cei care, potrivit legii, nu satisfac serviciul militar obligatoriu;

b. munca unei persoane condamnate, prestata in conditii normale, in perioada de detentie sau de libertate conditionata;

c. prestatiile impuse in situatia creata de calamitati ori de alt pericol, precum si cele care fac parte din obligatiile civile normale, stabilite de lege.

Articolul 45

Dreptul la greva

(1) Dreptul la greva este recunoscut. Grevele pot fi declansate numai in scopul apararii intereselor profesionale cu caracter economic si social ale salariatilor.

(2) Legea stabileste conditiile de exercitare a dreptului la greva, precum si raspunderea pentru declansarea nelegitima a grevelor.

Articolul 46

Dreptul la proprietate privata si protectia acesteia

(1) Dreptul la proprietate privata, precum si creantele asupra statului, sint garantate.

(2) Nimeni nu poate fi expropriat decit pentru o cauza de utilitate publica, stabilita potrivit legii, cu dreapta si prealabila despagubire.

(3) Averea dobindita licit nu poate fi confiscata. Caracterul licit al dobindirii se prezuma.

(4) Bunurile destinate, folosite sau rezultate din infractiuni ori contraventii pot fi confiscate numai in conditiile legii.

(5) Dreptul de proprietate privata obliga la respectarea sarcinilor privind protectia mediului inconjurator si asigurarea bunei vecinatati, precum si la respectarea celorlalte sarcini care, potrivit legii, revin proprietarului.

(6) Dreptul la mostenire a proprietatii private este garantat.

Articolul 47

Dreptul la asistenta si protectie sociala

(1) Statul este obligat sa ia masuri pentru ca orice om sa aiba un nivel de trai decent, care sa-i asigure sanatatea si bunastarea,lui si familiei lui, cuprinzind hrana, imbracamintea, locuinta, ingrijirea medicala, precum si serviciile sociale necesare.

(2) Cetatenii au dreptul la asigurare in caz de: somaj,boala, invaliditate, vaduvie, batrinete sau in celelalte cazuri de pierdere a mijloacelor de subzistenta,in urma unor imprejurari independente de vointa lor.

Articolul 48

Familia

(1) Familia constituie elementul natural si fundamental al societatii si are dreptul la ocrotire din partea societatii si a statului.

(2) Familia se intemeiaza pe casatoria liber consimtita intre barbat si femeie,pe egalitatea lor in drepturi si pe dreptul si indatorirea parintilor de a asigura cresterea,educatia si instruirea copiilor.

(3) Conditiile de incheiere, de desfacere si de nulitate a casatoriei se stabilesc prin lege.

(4) Copiii sint obligati sa aiba grija de parinti si sa le acorde ajutor.

Articolul 49

Protectia familiei si a copiilor orfani

(1) Statul faciliteaza, prin masuri economice si prin alte masuri, formarea familiei si indeplinirea obligatiilor ce ii revin.

(2) Statul ocroteste maternitatea, copiii si tinerii, stimulind dezvoltarea institutiilor necesare.

(3) Toate preocuparile privind intretinerea, instruirea si educatia copiilor orfani si a celor lipsiti de ocrotirea parintilor revin statului si societatii. Statul stimuleaza si sprijina activitatea de binefacere fata de acesti copii.

Articolul 50

Ocrotirea mamei, copiilor si a tinerilor

(1) Mama si copilul au dreptul la ajutor si ocrotire speciala. Toti copiii, inclusiv cei nascuti in afara casatoriei, se bucura de aceeasi ocrotire sociala.

(2) Copiii si tinerii se bucura de un regim special de asistenta in realizarea drepturilor lor.

(3) Statul acorda alocatiile necesare pentru copii si ajutoare pentru ingrijirea copiilor bolnavi ori handicapati. Alte forme de asistenta sociala pentru copii si tineri se stabilesc prin lege.

(4) Exploatarea minorilor, folosirea lor in activitati care le-ar dauna sanatatii,moralitatii sau care le-ar pune in primejdie viata ori dezvoltarea normala sint interzise.

(5) Autoritatile publice asigura conditii pentru participarea libera a tinerilor la viata sociala,economica, culturala si sportiva a tarii.

Articolul 51

Protectia persoanelor handicapate

(1) Persoanele handicapate beneficiaza de o protectie speciala din partea intregii societati. Statul asigura pentru ele conditii normale de tratament, de readaptare,de invatamint, de instruire si de integrare sociala.

(2) Nimeni nu poate fi supus nici unui tratament medical fortat, decit in cazurile prevazute de lege.

Articolul 52

Dreptul de petitionare

(1) Cetatenii au dreptul sa se adreseze autoritatilor publice prin petitii formulate numai in numele semnatarilor.

(2) Organizatiile legal constituite au dreptul sa adreseze petitii exclusiv in numele colectivelor pe care le reprezinta.

Articolul 53

Dreptul persoanei vatamate de o autoritate publica

(1) Persoana vatamata intr-un drept al sau de o autoritate publica, printr-un act administrativ sau prin nesolutionarea in termenul legal a unei cereri,este indreptatita sa obtina recunoasterea dreptului pretins, anularea actului si repararea pagubei.

(2) Statul raspunde patrimonial, potrivit legii, pentru prejudiciile cauzate prin erorile savirsite in procesele penale de catre organele de ancheta si instantele judecatoresti.

Articolul 54

Restringerea exercitiului unor drepturi sau al unor libertati

(1) In Republica Moldova nu pot fi adoptate legi care ar suprima sau ar diminua drepturile si libertatile fundamentale ale omului si cetateanului.

(2) Exercitiul drepturilor si libertatilor nu poate fi supus altor restringeri decit celor prevazute de lege, care corespund normelor unanim recunoscute ale dreptului international si sint necesare in interesele securitatii nationale, integritatii teritoriale, bunastarii economice a tarii, ordinii publice, in scopul prevenirii tulburarilor in masa si infractiunilor, protejarii drepturilor, libertatilor si demnitatii altor persoane, impiedicarii divulgarii informatiilor confidentiale sau garantarii autoritatii si impartialitatii justitiei.

(3) Prevederile alineatului (2) nu admit restringerea drepturilor proclamate in articolele 20-24.

(4) Restringerea trebuie sa fie proportionala cu situatia care a determinat-o si nu poate atinge existenta dreptului sau a libertatii.

[Art.54 in redactia Legii nr.351-XV din 12.07.2001]

 

Capitolul III.

Indatoririle Fundamentale

 

Articolul 55

Exercitarea drepturilor si a libertatilor

Orice persoana isi exercita drepturile si libertatile constitutionale cu buna credinta, fara sa incalce drepturile si libertatile altora.

[Art.55 in redactia Legii nr.351-XV din 12.07.2001]

Articolul 56

Devotamentul fata de tara

(1) Devotamentul fata de tara este sacru.

(2) Cetatenii carora le sint incredintate functii publice, precum si militarii, raspund de indeplinirea cu credinta a obligatiilor ce le revin si, in cazurile prevazute de lege, depun juramintul cerut de ea.

Articolul 57

Apararea Patriei

(1) Apararea Patriei este un drept si o datorie sfinta a fiecarui cetatean.

(2) Serviciul militar este satisfacut in cadrul fortelor militare, destinate apararii nationale, pazei frontierei si mentinerii ordinii publice, in conditiile legii.

Articolul 58

Contributii financiare

(1) Cetatenii au obligatia sa contribuie, prin impozite si prin taxe la cheltuielile publice.

(2) Sistemul legal de impuneri trebuie sa asigure asezarea justa a sarcinilor fiscale.

(3) Orice alte prestatii sint interzise, in afara celor stabilite prin lege.

Articolul 59

Protectia mediului inconjurator si ocrotirea monumentelor

Protectia mediului inconjurator,conservarea si ocrotirea monumentelor istorice si culturale constituie o obligatie a fiecarui cetatean.

 

Titlul III.

Autoritatile Publice

Capitolul IV.

Parlamentul

 

Sectiunea 1. Organizare si functionare

Articolul 60

Parlamentul, organ reprezentativ suprem si legislativ

(1) Parlamentul este organul reprezentativ suprem al poporului Republicii Moldova si unica autoritate legislativa a statului.

(2) Parlamentul este compus din 101 deputati.

Articolul 61

Alegerea Parlamentului

(1) Parlamentul este ales prin vot universal, egal, direct, secret si liber exprimat.

(2) Modul de organizare si de desfasurare a alegerilor este stabilit prin lege organica.

(3) Alegerile deputatilor in Parlament se desfasoara in cel mult 3 luni de la expirarea mandatului sau de la dizolvarea Parlamentului precedent.

Articolul 62

Validarea mandatului de deputat

Curtea Constitutionala, la propunerea Comisiei Electorale Centrale, hotaraste validarea mandatului de deputat sau nevalidarea lui in cazul incalcarii legislatiei electorale.

Articolul 63

Durata mandatului

(1) Parlamentul este ales pentru un mandat de 4 ani, care poate fi prelungit, prin lege organica, in caz de razboi sau de catastrofa.

(2) Parlamentul se intruneste, la convocarea Presedintelui Republicii Moldova, in cel mult 30 de zile de la alegeri.

(3) Mandatul Parlamentului se prelungeste pina la intrunirea legala a noii componente. In aceasta perioada nu poate fi modificata Constitutia si nu pot fi adoptate, modificarile sau abrogate legi organice.

(4) Proiectele de legi sau propunerile legislative inscrise pe ordinea de zi a Parlamentului precedent isi continua procedura in noul Parlament.

Articolul 64

Organizarea interna

(1) Structura, organizarea si functionarea Parlamentului se stabilesc prin regulament. Resursele financiare ale Parlamentului sint prevazute in bugetul aprobat de acesta.

(2) Presedintele Parlamentului se alege prin vot secret, cu majoritatea voturilor deputatilor alesi, pe durata mandatului Parlamentului. El poate fi revocat in orice moment prin vot secret de catre Parlament cu o majoritate de cel putin doua treimi din voturile tuturor deputailor.

(3) Vicepresedintii se aleg la propunerea Presedintelui Parlamentului, cu consultarea fractiunilor parlamentare.

Articolul 65

Caracterul public al sedintelor

(1) Sedintele Parlamentului sint publice.

(2) Parlamentul poate hotari ca anumite sedinte sa fie inchise.

Articolul 66

Atributiile de baza

Parlamentul are urmatoarele atributii de baza:

a. adopta legi, hotariri si notiuni;

b. declara referendumuri;

c. interpreteaza legile si asigura unitatea reglementarilor legislative pe intreg teritoriul tarii;

d. aproba directiile principale ale politicii interne si externe a statului;

e. aproba doctrina militara a statului;

f. exercita controlul parlamentar asupra puterii executive, sub formele si in limitele prevazute de Constitutie;

g. ratifica, denunta, suspenda si anuleaza actiunea tratatelor internationale incheiate de Republica Moldova;

h. aproba bugetul statului si exercita controlul asupra lui;

i. exercita controlul asupra acordarii imprumuturilor de stat, asupra ajutorului economic si de alta natura acordat unor state straine, asupra incheierii acordurilor privind imprumuturile si creditele de stat din surse straine;

j. alege si numeste persoane oficiale de stat,in cazurile prevazute de lege;

k. aproba ordinele si medaliile Republicii Moldova;

l. declara mobilizarea partiala sau generala;

m. declara starea de urgenta, de asediu si de razboi;

n. initiaza cercetarea si audierea oricaror chestiuni ce se refera la interesele societatii;

o. suspenda activitatea organelor administratiei publice locale, in cazurile prevazute de lege;

p. adopta acte privind amnistia;

q. indeplineste alte atributii, stabilite prin Constitutie si legi.

Articolul 67

Sesiuni

(1) Parlamentul se intruneste in doua sesiuni ordinare pe an. Prima sesiune incepe in luna februarie si nu poate depasi sfirsitul lunii iulie. A doua sesiune incepe in luna septembrie si nu poate depasi sfirsitul lunii decembrie.

(2) Parlamentul se intruneste si in sesiuni extraordinare sau speciale, la cererea Presedintelui Republicii Moldova, a Presedintelui Parlamentului sau a unei treimi din deputati.

Sectiunea 2. Statutul deputatilor

Articolul 68

Mandatul reprezentativ

(1) In exercitarea mandatului,deputatii sint in serviciul poporului.

(2) Orice mandat imperativ este nul.

Articolul 69

Mandatul deputatilor

(1) Deputatii intra in exercitiul mandatului sub conditia validarii.

(2) Calitatea de deputat inceteaza la data intrunirii legale a Parlamentului nou ales, in caz de demisie, de ridicare a mandatului, de incompatibilitate sau de deces.

Articolul 70

Incompatibilitati si imunitati

(1) Calitatea de deputat este incompatibila cu exercitarea oricarei alte functii retribuite, cu exceptia activitatii didactice si stiintifice.

(2) Alte incompatibilitati se stabilesc prin lege organica.

(3) Deputatul nu poate fi retinut, arestat, perchezitionat, cu exceptia cazurilor de infractiune flagranta, sau trimis in judecata fara incuviintarea Parlamentului, dupa ascultarea sa.

[Art.70 compl. prin Legea nr.1470-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

Articolul 71

Independenta opiniilor

Deputatul nu poate fi persecutat sau tras la raspundere juridica pentru voturile sau pentru opiniile exprimate in exercitarea mandatului.

Sectiunea 3. Legiferarea

Articolul 72

Categorii de legi

(1) Parlamentul adopta legi constitutionale, legi organice si legi ordinare.

(2) Legile constitutionale sint cele de revizuire a Constitutiei.

(3) Prin lege organica se reglementeaza:

a. sistemul electoral;

b. organizarea si desfasurarea referendumului;

c. organizarea si functionarea Parlamentului;

d. organizarea si functionarea Guvernului;

e. organizarea si functionarea Curtii Constitutionale,a Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii, a instantelor judecatoresti, a contenciosului administrativ;

f. organizarea administratiei locale, a teritoriului, precum si regimul general privind autonomia locala;

g. organizarea si functionarea partidelor politice;

h. modul de stabilire a zonei economice exclusive;

i. regimul juridic general al proprietatii si a mostenirii;

j. regimul general privind raporturile de munca , sindicatele si protectia sociala;

k. organizarea generala a invatamintului;

l. regimul general al cultelor religioase;

m. regimul starii de urgenta, de asediu si de razboi;

n. infractiunile, pedepsele si regimul executarii acestora;

o. acordarea amnistiei si gratierii;

p. celelalte domenii pentru care, in Constitutie,se prevede adoptarea de legi organice;

q. alte domenii pentru care Parlamentul considera necesara adoptarea de legi organice.

(4) Legile ordinare intervin in orice domeniu al relatiilor sociale, cu exceptia celor rezervate legilor constitutionale si legilor organice.

Articolul 73

Initiativa legislativa

Dreptul de initiativa legislativa apartine deputatilor in Parlament, Presedintelui Republicii Moldova si Guvernului.

Articolul 74

Adoptarea legilor si a hotaririlor

(1) Legile organice se adopta cu votul majoritatii deputatilor alesi dupa cel putin doua lecturi.

(2) Legile ordinare si hotararile se adopta cu votul majoritatii deputatilor prezenti.

(3) Proiectele de lege prezentate de Guvern, precum si propunerile legislative ale deputatilor acceptate de acesta sint examinate de Parlament In modul si dupa prioritatile stabilite de Guvern, inclusiv In procedura de urgenta. Alte propuneri legislative se examineaza In modul stabilit.

(4) Legile se trimit, spre promulgare, Presedintelui Republicii Moldova.

Articolul 75

Referendumul

(1) Cele mai importante probleme ale societatii si ale statului sint supuse referendumului.

(2) Hotaririle adoptate potrivit rezultatelor referendumului republican au putere juridica suprema.

Articolul 76

Intrarea in vigoare a legii

Legea se publica in Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova si intra in vigoare la data publicarii sau la data prevazuta in textul ei. Nepublicarea legii atrage inexistenta acesteia.

 

Capitolul V.

Presedintele Republicii Moldova

 

Articolul 77

Presedintele Republicii Moldova, seful statului

(1) Presedintele Republicii Moldova este seful statului.

(2) Presedintele Republicii Moldova reprezinta statul si este garantul suveranitatii, independentei nationale, al unitatii si integritatii teritoriale a tarii.

Articolul 78

Alegerea Presedintelui

(1) Presedintele Republicii Moldova este ales de Parlament prin vot secret.

(2) Poate fi ales Presedinte al Republicii Moldova cetateanul cu drept de vot care are 40 de ani impliniti, a locuit sau locuieste permanent pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova nu mai putin de 10 ani si poseda limba de stat.

(3) Este ales candidatul care a obtinut votul a trei cincimi din numarul deputatilor alesi. Daca nici un candidat nu a Intrunit numarul necesar de voturi, se organizeaza al doilea tur de scrutin Intre primii doi candidati stabiliti In ordinea numarului descrescator de voturi obtinute In primul tur.

(4) Daca si In turul al doilea nici un candidat nu va Intruni numarul necesar de voturi, se organizeaza alegeri repetate.

(5) Daca si dupa alegerile repetate Presedintele Republicii Moldova nu va fi ales, Presedintele In exercitiu dizolva Parlamentul si stabileste data alegerilor In noul Parlament.

(6) Procedura de alegere a Presedintelui Republicii Moldova este stabilita prin lege organica."

Articolul 79

Validarea mandatului si depunerea juramintului

(1) Rezultatul alegerilor pentru functia de Presedinte al Republicii Moldova este validat de Curtea Constitutionala.

(2) Candidatul a carui alegere a fost validata depune in fata Parlamentului si a Curtii Constitutionale, cel tirziu la 45 de zile dupa alegeri, urmatorul juramint:

"Jur sa-mi daruiesc toata puterea si priceperea propasirii Republicii Moldova, sa respect Constitutia si legile tarii, sa apar democratia, drepturile si libertatile fundamentale ale omului, suveranitatea, independenta, unitatea si integritatea teritoriala a Moldovei".

Articolul 80

Durata mandatului

(1) Mandatul Presedintelui Republicii Moldova dureaza 4 ani si se exercita de la data depunerii juramantului.

(2) Presedintele Republicii Moldova isi exercita mandatul pana la depunerea juramantului de catre Presedintele nou ales.

(3) Mandatul Presedintelui Republicii Moldova poate fi prelungit, prin lege organica, in caz de razboi sau de catastrofa.

(4) Nici o persoana nu poate indeplini functia de Presedinte al Republicii Moldova decat pentru cel mult doua mandate consecutive.

Articolul 81

Incompatibilitati si imunitati

(1) Calitatea de Presedinte al Republicii Moldova este incompatibila cu exercitarea oricarei alte functii retribuite.

(2) Presedintele Republicii Moldova se bucura de imunitate. El nu poate fi tras la raspundere juridica pentru opiniile exprimate in exercitarea mandatului.

(3) Parlamentul poate hotari punerea sub acuzare a Presedintelui Republicii Moldova, cu votul a cel putin doua treimi din numarul deputatilor alesi, in cazul in care savirseste o infractiune. Competenta de judecata apartine Curtii Supreme de Justitie, in conditiile legii. Presedintele este demis de drept la data raminerii definitive a sentintei de condamnare.

Articolul 84

Mesaje

(1) Presedintele Republicii Moldova poate lua parte la lucrarile Parlamentului.

(2) Presedintele Republicii Moldova adreseaza Parlamentului mesaje cu privire la principalele probleme ale natiunii.

Articolul 85

Dizolvarea Parlamentului

(1) In cazul imposibilitatii formarii Guvernului sau al blocarii procedurii de adoptare a legilor timp de 3 luni, Presedintele Republicii Moldova, dupa consultarea fractiunilor parlamentare, poate sa dizolve Parlamentul.

(2) Parlamentul poate fi dizolvat, daca nu a acceptat votul de incredere pentru formarea Guvernului, in termen de 45 de zile de la prima solicitare si numai dupa respingerea a cel putin doua solicitari de invenstitura.

(3) In cursul unui an Parlamentul poate fi dizolvat o singura data.

(4) Parlamentul nu poate fi dizolvat In ultimele 6 luni ale mandatului Presedintelui Republicii Moldova, cu exceptia cazului prevazut la art.78 alin.(5), si nici In timpul starii de urgenta, de asediu sau de razboi.

Articolul 86

Atributii in domeniul politicii externe

(1) Presedintele Republicii Moldova poarta tratative si ia parte la negocieri, incheie tratate internationale in numele Republicii Moldova si le prezinta, in modul si in termenul stabilit prin lege, spre ratificare Parlamentului.

(2) Presedintele Republicii Moldova, la propunerea Guvernului, acrediteaza si recheama reprezentantii diplomatici ai Republicii Moldova si aproba infiintarea, desfiintarea sau schimbarea rangului misiunilor diplomatice.

(3) Presedintele Republicii Moldova primeste scrisorile de acreditare si de rechemare ale reprezentantilor diplomatici ai altor state in Republica Moldova.

Articolul 87

Atributii in domeniul apararii

(1) Presedintele Republicii Moldova este comandantul suprem al fortelor armate.

(2) Presedintele Republicii Moldova poate declara, cu aprobarea prealabila a Parlamentului, mobilizarea partiala sau generala.

(3) In caz de agresiune armata indreptata impotriva tarii, Presedintele Republicii Moldova ia masuri pentru respingerea agresiunii, declara stare de razboi si le aduce, neintirziat, la cunostinta Parlamentului. Daca Parlamentul nu se afla in sesiune, el se convoaca de drept in 24 de ore de la declansarea agresiunii.

(4) Presedintele Republicii Moldova poate lua si alte masuri pentru asigurarea securitatii nationale si a ordinii publice, in limitele si in conditiile legii.

Articolul 88

Alte atributii

Presedintele Republicii Moldova indeplineste si urmatoarele atributii:

a. confera decoratii si titluri de onoare;

b. acorda grade militare supreme prevazute de lege;

c. solutioneaza problmele cetateniei Republicii Moldova si acorda azil politic;

d. numeste in functii publice, in conditiile prevazute de lege;

e. acorda gratiere individuala;

f. poate cere poporului sa-si exprime, prin referendum, vointa asupra problemelor de interes national;

g. acorda ranguri diplomatice;

h. confera grade superioare de clasificare lucratorilor din procuratura, judecatorii si altor categorii de functionari, in conditiile legii;

i. suspendeaza actele Guvernului,ce contravin legislatiei pina la adoptarea hotaririi definitive a Curtii Constitutionale.

j. exercita si alte atributii stabilite prin lege.

Articolul 89

Suspendarea din functie

(1) In cazul savarsirii unor fapte prin care Incalca prevederile Constitutiei, Presedintele Republicii Moldova poate fi demis de catre Parlament cu votul a doua treimi din numarul deputatilor alesi.

(2) Propunerea de demitere poate fi initiata de cel putin o treime din deputati si se aduce neintarziat la cunostinta Presedintelui Republicii Moldova. Presedintele poate da Parlamentului si Curtii Constitutionale explicatii cu privire la faptele ce i se imputa."

Articolul 90

Vacanta functiei

(1) Vacanta functiei de Presedinte al Republicii Moldova intervine in caz de expirare a mandatului, de demisie, de demitere, de imposibilitate definitiva a exercitarii atributiilor sau de deces.

(2) Cererea de demisie a Presedintelui Republicii Moldova este prezentata Parlamentului, care se pronunta asupra ei.

(3) Imposibilitatea exercitarii atributiilor mai mult de 60 de zile de catre Presedintele Republicii Moldova este confirmata de Curtea Constitutionala In termen de 30 zile de la sesizare.

(4) In termen de 2 luni de la data la care a intervenit vacanta functiei de Presedinte al Republicii Moldova, se vor organiza, in conformitate cu legea, alegeri pentru un nou Presedinte.

Articolul 91

Interimatul functiei

Daca functia de Presedinte al Republicii Moldova devine vacanta sau daca Presedintele este demis, ori daca se afla in imposibilitatea temporara de a-si exercita atributiile, interimatul se asigura, in ordine, de Presedintele Parlamentului sau de Primul-ministru.

Articolul 92

Raspunderea Presedintelui interimar

Daca persoana care asigura interimatul functiei de Presedinte al Republicii Moldova savirseste fapte grave prin care incalca prevederile Constitutiei, se aplica articolul 89 alineatul (1) si articolul 91.

Articolul 93

Promulgarea legilor

(1) Presedintele Republicii Moldova promulga legile.

(2) Presedintele Republicii Moldova este in drept, in cazul in care are obiectii asupra unei legi, sa o trimita, in termen de cel mult doua saptamini, spre reexaminare, Parlamentului. In cazul in care Parlamentul isi mentine hotarirea adoptata anterior, Presedintele promulga legea.

Articolul 94

Actele Presedintelui

(1) In exercitarea atributiilor sale, Presedintele Republicii Moldova emite decrete, obligatorii pentru executare pe intreg teritoriul statului. Decretele se publica in Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova.

(2) Decretele emise de Presedinte in exercitarea atributiilor sale prevazute in articolul 86 alineatul (2), articolul 87 alineatele (2), (3) si (4) se contrasemneaza de catre Primul-ministru.

Articolul 95

Resursele financiare ale aparatului Presedintelui, indemnizatia si alte drepturi

(1) Resursele financiare ale aparatului Presedintelui Republicii Moldova se aproba, la propunerea acestuia, de catre Parlament si se includ in bugetul de stat.

(2) Indemnizatia si alte drepturi ale Presedintelui Republicii Moldova se stabilesc prin lege.

 

Capitolul VI.

Guvernul

 

Articolul 96

Rolul

(1) Guvernul asigura realizarea politicii interne si externe a statului si exercita conducerea generala a administratiei publice.

(2) In exercitarea atributiilor, Guvernul se conduce de programul sau de activitate, acceptat de Parlament.

Articolul 97

Structura

Guvernul este alcatuit din Prim-ministru, prim-viceprim-ministru, viceprim-ministri, ministri si alti membri stabiliti prin lege organica.

Articolul 98

Investitura

(1) Dupa consultarea fractiunilor parlamentare, Presedintele Republicii Moldova desemneaza un candidat pentru functia de Prim-ministru.

(2) Candidatul pentru functia de Prim-ministru va cere, in termen de 15 zile de la desemnare, votul de incredere al Parlamentului asupra programului de activitate si a intregii liste a Guvernului.

(3) Programul de activitate si lista Guvernului se dezbat in sedinta Parlamentului. Acesta acorda incredere Guvernului cu votul majoritatii deputatilor alesi.

(4) In baza votului de Incredere acordat de Parlament, Presedintele Republicii Moldova numeste Guvernul.

(5) Guvernul isi exercita atributiile din ziua depunerii juramantului de catre membrii lui in fata Presedintelui Republicii Moldova.

(6) In caz de remaniere guvernamentala sau de vacanta a functiei, Presedintele Republicii Moldova revoca si numeste, la propunerea Prim-ministrului, pe unii membri ai Guvernului.

Articolul 99

Incompatibilitati

(1) Functia de membru al Guvernului este incompatibila cu exercitarea oricarei alte functii retribuite.

(2) Alte incompatibilitati se stabilesc prin lege organica.

Articolul 100

Incetarea functiei de membru al Guvernului

Functia de membru al Guvernului inceteaza in caz de demisie, revocare, de incompatibilitate sau de deces.

Articolul 101

Prim-ministrul

(1) Prim-ministrul conduce Guvernul si coordoneaza activitatea membrilor acestuia, respectand atributiile ce le revin.

(2) In cazul imposibilitatii Prim-ministrului de a-si exercita atributiile sau In cazul decesului acestuia, Presedintele Republicii Moldova va desemna un alt membru al Guvernului ca Prim-ministru interimar pana la formarea noului Guvern. Interimatul pe perioada imposibilitatii exercitarii atributiilor inceteaza, daca Prim-ministrul isi reia activitatea in Guvern.

(3) In cazul demisiei Prim-ministrului, demisioneaza intregul Guvern.

Articolul 102

Actele Guvernului

(1) Guvernul adopta hotarari, ordonante si dispozitii.

(2) Hotararile se adopta pentru organizarea executarii legilor.

(3) Ordonantele se emit In conditiile articolului 1062.

(4) Hotararile si ordonantele adoptate de Guvern se semneaza de Prim-ministru, se contrasemneaza de ministrii care au obligatia punerii lor In executare si se publica In Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova. Nepublicarea atrage inexistenta hotararii sau ordonantei.

(5) Dispozitiile se emit de Prim-ministru pentru organizarea activitatii interne a Guvernului."

Articolul 103

Incetarea mandatului

(1) Guvernul isi exercita mandatul pina la data validarii alegerilor pentru un nou Parlament.

(2) Guvernul, in cazul exprimarii votului de neincredere de catre Parlament, al demisiei Prim-ministrului sau in cazul alineatului (1), indeplineste numai functiile de administrare a treburilor publice, pina la depunerea juramintului de catre membrii noului Guvern.

 

Capitolul VII.

Raporturile Parlamentului cu Guvernul

 

Articolul 104

Informarea Parlamentului

(1) Guvernul este responsabil in fata Parlamentului si prezinta informatiile si documentele cerute de acesta,de comisiile lui si de deputati.

(2) Membrii Guvernului au acces la lucrarile Parlamentului. Daca li se solicita prezenta, participarea lor este obligatorie.

Articolul 105

Intrebari si interpelari

(1) Guvernul si fiecare dintre membrii sai sint obligati sa raspunda la intrebarile sau la interpelarile formulate de deputati.

(2) Parlamentul poate adopta o motiune prin care sa-si exprime pozitia fata de obiectul interpelarii.

Articolul 106

Exprimarea neincrederii

(1) Parlamentul, la propunerea a cel putin o patrime din deputati, isi poate exprima neincrederea in Guvern, cu votul majoritatii deputatilor.

(2) Initiativa de exprimare a neincrederii se examineaza dupa 3 zile de la data prezentarii in Parlament.

Articolul 106 1

Angajarea raspunderii Guvernului

(1) Guvernul Isi poate angaja raspunderea In fata Parlamentului asupra unui program, unei declaratii de politica generala sau unui proiect de lege.

(2) Guvernul este demis daca motiunea de cenzura, depusa In termen de 3 zile de la prezentarea programului, declaratiei de politica generala sau proiectului de lege, a fost votata In conditiile articolului 106.

(3) Daca Guvernul nu a fost demis potrivit alineatului (2), proiectul de lege prezentat se considera adoptat, iar programul sau declaratia de politica generala devine obligatorie pentru Guvern.

Articolul 106 2

Delegarea legislativa

(1) In vederea realizarii programului de activitate al Guvernului, Parlamentul poate adopta, la propunerea acestuia, o lege speciala de abilitare a Guvernului pentru a emite ordonante In domenii care nu fac obiectul legilor organice.

(2) Legea de abilitare va stabili, In mod obligatoriu, domeniul si data pana la care se pot emite ordonante.

(3) Ordonantele intra In vigoare la data publicarii, fara a fi promulgate.

(4) Daca legea de abilitare o cere, ordonantele se supun aprobarii Parlamentului. Proiectul de lege privind aprobarea ordonantelor se prezinta In termenul stabilit In legea de abilitare. Nerespectarea acestui termen atrage Incetarea efectelor ordonantei. Daca Parlamentul nu respinge proiectul de lege privind aprobarea ordonantelor, acestea raman In vigoare.

(5) Dupa expirarea termenului stabilit pentru emiterea ordonantelor, acestea pot fi abrogate, suspendate sau modificate numai prin lege.

 

Capitolul VIII.

Administratia Publica

 

Articolul 107

Administratia publica centrala de specialitate

(1) Organele centrale de specialitate ale statului sint ministerele. Ele traduc in viata, in temeiul legii, politica Guvernului, hotaririle si dispozitiile lui, conduc domeniile incredintate si sint responsabile de activitatea lor.

(2) In scopul conducerii, coordonarii si exercitarii controlului in domeniul organizarii economiei si in alte domenii care nu intra nemijlocit in atributiile ministerelor se infiinteaza, in conditiile legii, si alte autoritati administrative.

Articolul 108

Fortele armate

(1) Fortele armate sint subordonate exlusiv vointei poporului pentru garantarea suveranitatii, a independentei si a unitatii, a integritatii teritoriale a tarii si a democratiei constitutionale.

(2) Structura sistemului national de aparare se stabileste prin lege organica.

Articolul 109

Principiile de baza ale administrarii publice locale

(1) Administratia publica in unitatile administrativ-teritoriale se intemeiaza pe principiile autonomiei locale, ale descentralizarii serviciilor publice, ale eligibilitatii autoritatilor administratiei publice locale si ale consultarii cetatenilor in problemele locale de interes deosebit.

(2) Autonomia priveste atit organizarea si functionarea administratiei publice locale, cit si gestiunea colectivitatilor pe care le reprezinta.

(3) Aplicarea principiilor enuntate nu poate afecta caracterul de stat unitar.

Articolul 110

Organizarea administrativ-teritoriala

Teritoriul Republicii Moldova este organizat, sub aspect administrativ, in raioane, orase si sate. In conditiile legii, unele orase pot fi declarate municipii.

Articolul 111

Statutul special de autonomie

(1) Localitatilor din stinga Nistrului, precum si unor localitati din sudul Republicii Moldova, le pot fi atribuite forme si conditii speciale de autonomie dupa statute speciale adoptate prin legi organice.

(2) Legile organice care reglementeaza statutele speciale ale localitatilor prevazute la alineatul (1) pot fi modificate cu votul a trei cincimi din numarul deputatilor alesi.

Articolul 112

Autoritatile satesti si orasenesti

(1) Autoritatile administratiei publice, prin care se exercita autonomia locala in sate si in orase, sint consiliile locale alese si primarii alesi.

(2) Consiliile locale si primarii activeaza, in conditiile legii, ca autoritati administrative autonome si rezolva treburile publice din sate si orase.

(3) Modul de alegere a consiliilor locale si a primarilor, precum si atributiile lor, este stabilit de lege.

Articolul 113

Consiliul raional

(1) Consiliul raional coordoneaza activitatea consiliilor satesti si orasenesti in vederea realizarii serviciilor publice de interes raional.

(2) Consiliul raional este ales si functioneaza in conditiile legii.

(3) Raporturile dintre autoritatile publice locale au la baza principiile autonomiei, legalitatii si colaborarii in rezolvarea problemelor comune.

Capitolul IX. Autoritatea Judecatoreasca

Sectiunea 1. Instantele judecatoresti

Articolul 114

Infaptuirea justitiei

Justitia se infaptuieste in numele legii numai de instantele judecatoresti.

Articolul 115

Instantele judecatoresti

(1) Justitia se infaptuieste prin Curtea Suprema de Justitie, prin curtile de apel si prin judecatorii.

(2) Pentru anumite categorii de cauze pot functiona, potrivit legii, judecatorii specializate.

(3) Infiintarea de instante extraordinare este interzisa.

(4) Organizarea instantelor judecatoresti, competenta acestora si procedura de judecata sint stabilite prin lege organica.

[Art.115 modif. prin Legea nr.1471-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

Articolul 116

Statutul judecatorilor

(1) Judecatorii instantelor judecatoresti sint independenti, impartiali si inamovibili, potrivit legii.

(2) Judecatorii instantelor judecatoresti se numesc in functie de Presedintele Republicii Moldova, la propunerea Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii, in conditiile legii. Judecatorii care au sustinut concursul sint numiti in functie pentru prima data pe un termen de 5 ani. Dupa expirarea termenului de 5 ani, judecatorii vor fi numiti in functie pina la atingerea plafonului de virsta, stabilit in conditiile legii.

(3) Presedintii si vicepresedintii instantelor judecatoresti sint numiti in functie de Presedintele Republicii Moldova, la propunerea Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii, pe un termen de 4 ani.

(4) Presedintele, vicepresedintii si judecatorii Curtii Supreme de Justitie sint numiti in functie de Parlament la propunerea Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii. Ei trebuie sa aiba o vechime in functia de judecator de cel putin 10 ani.

(5) Promovarea si transferarea judecatorilor se fac numai cu acordul acestora.

(6) Sanctionarea judecatorilor se face in conformitate cu legea.

(7) Functia de judecator este incompatibila cu exercitarea oricarei alte functii retribuite, cu exceptia activitatii didactice si stiintifice.

[Art.116 in redactia Legii nr.1471-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

[Art.116 modificat prin Legea nr.957-XIII din 19.07.96]

Articolul 117

Caracterul public al dezbaterilor judiciare

In toate instantele judecatoresti sedintele de judecata sint publice. Judecarea proceselor in sedinta inchisa se admite numai in cazurile stabilite prin lege, cu respectarea tuturor regulilor de procedura.

Articolul 118

Limba de procedura si dreptul la interpret

(1) Procedura judiciara se desfasoara in limba moldoveneasca.

(2) Persoanele care nu poseda sau nu vorbesc limba moldoveneasca au dreptul de a lua cunostinta de toate actele si lucrarile dosarului, de a vorbi in instanta prin interpret.

(3) In conditiile legii, procedura judiciara se poate efectua si intr-o limba acceptabila pentru majoritatea persoanelor care participa la proces.

Articolul 119

Folosirea cailor de atac

Impotriva hotaririlor judecatoresti, partile interesate si organele de stat competente pot exercita caile de atac, in conditiile legii.

Articolul 120

Caracterul obligatoriu al sentintelor si al altor hotariri judecatoresti definitive

Este obligatorie respectarea sentintelor si a altor hotariri definitive ale instantelor judecatoresti, precum si colaborarea solicitata de acestea in timpul procesului, al executarii sentintelor si a altor hotariri judecatoresti definitive.

Articolul 121

Resursele financiare ale instantelor judecatoresti, indemnizatia si alte drepturi

(1) Resursele financiare ale instantelor judecatoresti sint aprobate de Parlament si sint incluse in bugetul de stat.

(2) Indemnizatiile si alte drepturi ale judecatorilor sint stabilite prin lege.

(3) Instantele judecatoresti dispun de politia pusa in serviciul lor.

Sectiunea 2. Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii

Articolul 122

Componenta

(1) Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii este alcatuit din judecatori si profesori titulari alesi pentru o durata de 4 ani.

(2) Din Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii fac parte de drept: Presedintele Curtii Supreme de Justitie, ministrul justitiei si Procurorul General.

[Art.122 in redactia Legii nr.1471-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

Articolul 123

Atributiile

(1) Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii asigura numirea, transferarea, detasarea, promovarea in functie si aplicarea de masuri disciplinare fata de judecatori.

(2) Modul de organizare si functionare al Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii se stabileste prin lege organica.

[Art.123 in redactia Legii nr.1471-XV din 21.11.02, in vigoare 12.12.02]

Sectiunea 3. Procuratura

Articolul 124

Atributiile si structura

(1) Procuratura reprezinta interesele generale ale societatii si apara ordinea de drept, precum si drepturile si libertatile cetatenilor, conduce si exercita urmarirea penala, reprezinta Invinuirea In instantele judecatoresti In conditiile legii.

(2) Sistemul organelor Procuraturii cuprinde Procuratura Generala, procuraturile teritoriale si procuraturile specializate.

(3) Organizarea, competenta si modul de desfasurare a activitatii Procuraturii sint stabilite prin lege.

Articolul 125

Mandatul procurorilor

(1) Procurorul General este numit in functie de catre Parlament, la propunerea Presedintelui acestuia.

(2) Procurorii ierarhic inferiori sint numiti de Procurorul General si ii sint subordonati.

(3) Mandatul procurorilor este de 5 ani.

(4) Functia de procuror este incompatibila cu orice alta functie publica sau privata, cu exceptia activitatii didactice si stiintifice.

(5) In exercitarea mandatului procurorii se supun numai legii.

 

Titlul IV.

Economia Nationala si Finantele Publice

 

Articolul 126

Economia

(1) Economia Republicii Moldova este economie de piata, de orientare sociala, bazata pe proprietatea privata si pe proprietatea publica, antrenate in concurenta libera.

(2) Statul trebuie sa asigure:

a. reglementarea activitatii economice si administrarea proprietatii publice ce-i apartine in conditiile legii;

b. libertatea comertului si activitatii de intreprinzator, protectia concurentei loiale, crearea unui cadru favorabil valorificarii tuturor factorilor de productie;

c. protejarea intereselor nationale in activitatea economica, financiara si valutara;

d. stimularea cercetarilor stiintifice;

e. exploatarea rationala a pamintului si a celorlalte resurse naturale, in concordanta cu interesele nationale;

f. refacerea si protectia mediului inconjurator, precum si mentinerea echilibrului ecologic;

g. sporirea numarului de locuri de munca, crearea conditiilor pentru cresterea calitatii vietii;

h. inviolabilitatea investitiilor persoanelor fizice si juridice, inclusiv straine.

Articolul 127

Proprietatea

(1) Statul ocroteste proprietatea.

(2) Statul garanteaza realizarea dreptului de proprietate in formele solicitate de titular, daca acestea nu vin in contradictie cu interesele societatii.

(3) Proprietatea publica apartine statului sau unitatilor administrativ-teritoriale.

(4) Bogatiile de orice natura ale subsolului, spatiul aerian, apele si padurile folosite in interes public, resursele naturale ale zonei economice si ale platoului continental, caile de comunicatie, precum si alte bunuri stabilite de lege, fac obiectul exclusiv al proprietatii publice.

Articolul 128

Proprietatea cetatenilor straini si a apatrizilor

(1) In Republica Moldova este ocrotita proprietatea altor state, a organizatiilor internationale, a cetatenilor straini si a apatrizilor.

(2) Modul si conditiile de exercitare a dreptului de proprietate al persoanelor fizice si juridice straine, precum si al apatrizilor, pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova sint reglementate prin lege.

Articolul 129

Activitatea economica externa

(1) Parlamentul aproba directiile principale ale activitatii economice externe, principiile utilizarii imprumuturilor si creditelor straine.

(2) Guvernul asigura protejarea intereselor nationale in activitatea economica externa, promoveaza politica liberului schimb sau politica protectionista, pornind de la interesele nationale.

Articolul 130

Sistemul financiar-creditar

(1) Formarea, administrarea, utilizarea si controlul resurselor financiare ale statului, ale unitatilor administrativ-teritoriale si ale institutiilor publice sint reglementate prin lege.

(2) Moneda nationala a Republicii Moldova este leul moldovenesc.

(3) Dreptul exclusiv la emisia monetara apartine Bancii Nationale a Republicii Moldova. Emisia se efectueaza conform deciziei Parlamentului.

Articolul 131

Bugetul public national

(1) Bugetul public national cuprinde bugetul de stat, bugetul asigurarilor sociale de stat si bugetele raioanelor, oraselor si satelor.

(2) Guvernul elaboreaza anual proiectul bugetului de stat si bugetului asigurarilor sociale de stat, pe care le supune, separat, aprobarii Parlamentului. In caz de formare a fondului extrabugetar, el se prezinta spre aprobare Parlamentului.

(3) Daca bugetul de stat si bugetul asigurarilor sociale de stat nu au fost adoptate prin lege cu cel putin trei zile inainte de expirarea exercitiului bugetar, se aplica in continuare bugetul de stat si bugetul asigurarilor sociale de stat ale anului precedent, pana la adoptarea noilor bugete.

(4) Orice propunere legislativa sau amendament care atrag majorarea sau reducerea veniturilor bugetare sau Imprumuturilor, precum si majorarea sau reducerea cheltuielilor bugetare pot fi adoptate numai dupa ce sint acceptate de Guvern.

(5) Bugetele raioanelor, oraselor si satelor se elaboreaza, se aproba si se executa in conditiile legii.

(6) Nici o cheltuiala bugetara nu poate fi aprobata fara stabilirea sursei de finantare.

Articolul 132

Sistemul fiscal

(1) Impozitele, taxele si orice venituri ale bugetului de stat si ale bugetului asigurarilor sociale de stat, ale bugetelor raioanelor, oraselor si satelor se stabilesc, conform legii, de organele reprezentative respective.

(2) Orice alte prestari sint interzise.

Articolul 133

Curtea de Conturi

(1) Curtea de Conturi exercita controlul asupra modului de formare, de administrare si de intrebuintare a resurselor financiare publice.

(2) Curtea de Conturi este alcatuita din 7 membri.

(3) Presedintele Curtii de Conturi este numit de Parlament, la propunerea Presedintelui acestuia, pentru un termen de 5 ani. Membrii Curtii sint numiti de Parlament, la propunerea Presedintelui acesteia.

(4) Curtea de Conturi prezinta anual Parlamentului un raport asupra administrarii si intrebuintarii resurselor financiare publice.

(5) Alte atributii, precum si modul de organizare si functionare a Curtii de Conturi, se stabilesc prin lege organica.

 

Titlul V.

Curtea Constitutionala

 

Articolul 134

Statutul

(1) Curtea Constitutionala este unica autoritate de jurisdictie constitutionala in Republica Moldova.

(2) Curtea Constitutionala este independenta de orice alta autoritate publica si se supune numai Constitutiei.

(3) Curtea Constitutionala garanteaza suprematia Constitutiei, asigura realizarea principiului separarii puterii de stat in putere legislativa, putere executiva si putere judecatoreasca si garanteaza responsabilitatea statului fata de cetatean si a cetateanului fata de stat.

Articolul 135

Atributiile

(1) Curtea Constitutionala:

a. Curtea Constitutionala:

b. exercita la sesizare controlul constitutionalitatii legilor si hotararilor Parlamentului, a decretelor Presedintelui Republicii Moldova, a hotararilor si ordonantelor Guvernului, precum si a tratatelor internationale la care Republica Moldova este parte,

c. interpreteaza Constitutia;

d. se pronunta asupra initiativelor de revizuire a Constitutiei;

e. confirma rezultatele referendumurilor republicane;

f. confirma rezultatele alegerii Parlamentului si a Presedintelui Republicii Moldova;

g. constata circumstantele care justifica dizolvarea Parlamentului, demiterea Presedintelui Republicii Moldova sau interimatul functiei de Presedinte, precum si imposibilitatea Presedintelui Republicii Moldova de a-si exercita atributiile mai mult de 60 de zile;

h. rezolva cazurile exceptionale de neconstitutionalitate a actelor juridice sesizate de Curtea Suprema de Justitie:

i. hotaraste asupra chestiunilor care au ca obiect constitutionalitatea unui partid.

(2) Curtea Constitutionala isi desfasoara activitatea din initiativa subiectilor prevazuti de Legea cu privire la Curtea Constitutionala.

Articolul 136

Structura

(1) Curtea Constitutionala se compune din 6 judecatori, numiti pentru un mandat de 6 ani.

(2) Doi judecatori sint numiti de Parlament, doi de Guvern si doi de Consiliul Superior al Magistraturii.

(3) Judecatorii Curtii Constitutionale aleg, prin vot secret, presedintele acesteia.

Articolul 137

Independenta

Judecatorii Curtii Constitutionale sint inamovibili pe durata mandatului, independenti si se supun numai Constitutiei.

Articolul 138

Conditiile pentru numire

Judecatorii Curtii Constitutionale trebuie sa aiba o pregatire juridica superioara, o inalta competenta profesionala si o vechime de cel putin 15 ani in activitatea juridica, in invatamintul juridic sau in activitatea stiintifica.

Articolul 139

Incompatibilitati

Functia de judecator al Curtii Constitutionale este incompatibila cu oricare alta functie publica sau privata retribuita, cu exceptia activitatii didactice si stiintifice.

Articolul 140

Hotaririle Curtii Constitutionale

(1) Legile si alte acte normative sau unele parti ale acestora devin nule, din momentul adoptarii hotaririi corespunzatoare a Curtii Constitutionale.

(2) Hotaririle Curtii Constitutionale sint definitive si nu pot fi atacate.

 

Titlul VI.

Revizuirea Constitutiei

 

Articolul 141

Initiativa revizuirii

(1) Revizuirea Constitutiei poate fi initiata de:

a. un numar de cel putin 200 000 de cetateni ai Republicii Moldova cu drept de vot. Cetatenii care initiaza revizuirea Constitutiei trebuie sa provina din cel putin jumatate din unitatile administrativ-teritoriale de nivelul doi, iar in fiecare din ele trebuie sa fie inregistrate cel putin 20000 de semnaturi in spijinul acestei initiative,

b. un numar de cel putin o treime de deputati in Parlament,

c. Guvern.

(2) Proiectele de legi constitutionale vor fi prezentate Parlamentului numai impreuna cu avizul Curtii Constitutionale, adoptat cu votul a cel putin 4 judecatori.

Articolul 142

Limitele revizuirii

(1) Dispozitiile privind caracterul suveran, independent si unitar al statului, precum si cele referitoare la neutralitatea permanenta a statului, pot fi revizuite numai cu aprobarea lor prin referendum, cu votul majoritatii cetatenilor inscrisi in listele electorale.

(2) Nici o revizuire nu poate fi facuta, daca are ca rezultat suprimarea drepturilor si libertatilor fundamentale ale cetatenilor sau a garantiilor acestora.

(3) Constitutia nu poate fi revizuita pe durata starii de urgenta, de asediu si de razboi.

Articolul 143

Legea privind modificarea Constitutiei

(1) Parlamentul este in drept sa adopte o lege cu privire la modificarea Constitutiei dupa cel putin 6 luni de la data prezentarii initiativei corespunzatoare. Lgea se adopta cu votul a doua treimi din deputati.

(2) Daca de la prezentarea initiativei cu privire la modificarea Constitutiei Parlamentul nu a adoptat timp de un an legea constitutionala corespunzatoare, propunerea se considera nula.

 

Titlul VII.

Dispozitii Finale si Tranzitorii

 

Articolul I

(1) Prezenta Constitutie este adoptata de Parlament si se promulga de catre Presedintele Republicii Moldova in termen de 3 zile.

(2) Constitutia Republicii Moldova intra in vigoare la 27 august 1994. La aceeasi data Constitutia Republicii Moldova din 15 aprilie 1978, cu modificarile si completarile ulterioare, este in intregime abrogata.

Articolul II

(1) Legile si celelalte acte normative ramin in vigoare in masura in care nu contravin prezentei Constitutii.

(2) Comisiile permanente ale Parlamentului, Guvernul, in decusul unui an de la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii, vor examina conformitatea legislatiei cu Constitutia si vor prezenta Parlamentului propunerile respective.

Articolul III

(1) Institutiile de stat, existente la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii, ramin in functiune pina la constituirea unor institutii noi.

(2) Parlamentul, constituit din 104 deputati, alesi prin vot universal, egal, direct, secret si liber exprimat, in conditiile pluralismului politic si pluripartidismului, conform Legii din 14 octombrie 1993 privind alegerea Parlamentului, ramine in functiune pina la expirarea mandatului, cu exceptia cazurilor prevazute in prezenta Constitutie.

(3) Presedintele Republicii Moldova, ales prin vot universal, egal, direct, secret si liber exprimat, in conditiile pluralismului politic si pluripartidismului, pe un termen de 5 ani, conform Legii din 18 septembrie 1991 cu privire la alegerile Presedintelui Republicii Moldova, ramine in functiune pina la expirarea mandatului pentru care a fost ales, cu exceptia cazurilor prevazute in prezenta Constitutie.

(4) Guvernul, investit in functie de catre Parlament, ramine in exercitarea imputernicirilor pina la expirarea mandatului, cu exceptia cazurilor prevazute in prezenta Constitutie.

(5) Organele locale ale puterii de stat si ale administratiei de stat ramin in exercitarea imputernicirilor pina la expirarea mandatului, cu exceptia cazurilor prevazute in prezenta Constitutie.

(6) Asupra judecatorilor care, la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii, au o vechime in munca in judecatorii de cel putin 5 ani, se rasfringe principiul inamovibilitatii, conform articolului 116 alineatul (1), printr-un decret al Presedintelui Republicii Moldova, la propunerea ministrului justitiei si a Presedintelui Judecatoriei Supreme.

[Alin.(6) in redactia Legii nr.957-XIII din 19.07.96]

(7) In decursul a 2 ani de la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii, sistemul instantelor judecatoresti va fi reorganizat, prin lege, conform articolului 115.

Articolul IV

Prevederile articolului 25 alineatul (4), ce tin de termenul arestarii, nu se rasfring, pina la 1 ianuarie 1995, asupra persoanelor care au comis infractiuni grave prevazute de articolul 7/1 din Codul penal.

Articolul V

(1) In decursul a 6 luni de la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii se infiinteaza Curtea Constitutionala si Curtea de Conturi.

(2) In prima componenta a Curtii Constitutionale judecatorii din partea Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii sint numiti in functie de adunarea generala a judecatorilor populari si a membrilor Judecatoriei Supreme.

Articolul VI

Pina la infiintarea Curtii Constitutionale, cazurile prevazute in articolul 135 al prezentei Constitutii pot fi solutionate, din initiativa Parlamentului, de catre Judecatoria Suprema.

Articolul VII

(1) Legea din 1 septembrie 1989 cu privire la functionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova ramine in vigoare in masura in care nu contravine prezentei Constitutii.

(2) Sus-numita lege poate fi modificata in decursul a 7 ani de la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei Constitutii, cu votul a cel putin doua treimi din deputati.

Articolul VIII

Titlul VII, Dispozitii finale si tranzitorii, se considera parte integranta a prezentei Constitutii si reglementeaza problemele ce tin de intrarea ei in vigoare.

 

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