Print Friendly

Il provvedimento è disponibile nelle seguenti lingue:

Croatia - Old Constitution (1990)

 

Adopted in: Dec 1990

ICL Document Status: Dec 1990

 

 

This is the OLD edition of the Croation Constitution by ICL. There have been numerous amendments since 1990 that are included in the consolidated edition.

 

 

 

Chapter I Historical Foundations

 

 

Preamble

The millennial national identity of the Croatian nation and the continuity of its statehood, confirmed by the course of its entire historical experience in various political forms and by the perpetuation and growth of state-building ideas based on the historical right to full sovereignty of the Croatian nation, manifested itself:

in the formation of Croatian principalities in the 7th century;

in the independent medieval state of Croatia founded in the 9th century;

in the Kingdom of Croats established in the 10th century;

in the preservation of the subjectivity of the Croatian state in the Croatian-Hungarian personal union;

in the autonomous and sovereign decision of the Croatian Parliament of 1527 to elect a king from the Habsburg dynasty;

in the autonomous and sovereign decision for the Croatian Parliament to sign the Pragmatic Sanction of 1712;

in the conclusions of the Croatian Parliament of 1848 regarding the restoration of the integrity of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia under the power of the Vice-Roy (Ban) on the basis of the historical state and natural right of the Croatian nation;

in the Croatian-Hungarian Compromise of 1868 regulating the relations between the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia and the Kingdom of Hungary, on the basis of the legal traditions of both states and the Pragmatic Sanction of 1712;

in the decision of the Croatian Parliament of 29 Oct 1918, to dissolve state relations between Croatia and Austria-Hungary, and the simultaneous affiliation of independent Croatia, invoking its historical and natural right as a nation, with the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, proclaimed in the former territory of the Habsburg Empire;

in the fact that the Croatian Parliament never sanctioned the decision passed by the National Council of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to unite with Serbia and Montenegro in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1 Dec 1918), subsequently proclaimed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (3 Oct 1929);

in the establishment of the Banovina of Croatia in 1939 by which Croatian state identity was restored in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia;

in laying the foundations of state sovereignty during World War Two, through decisions of the Anti-Fascist Council of the National Liberation of Croatia (1943), to oppose the proclamation of the Independent State of Croatia (1941), and subsequently in the Constitution of the People's Republic of Croatia (1947), and several subsequent constitutions of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (1963-1990).

At the historic turning-point marked by the rejection of the communist system and changes in the international order in Europe, the Croatian nation reaffirmed, in the first democratic elections (1990), by its freely expressed will, its millennial statehood and its resolution to establish the Republic of Croatia as a sovereign state.

Proceeding from the above presented historical facts and from the generally accepted principles in the modern world and the inalienable, indivisible, nontransferable and inexpendable right of the Croatian nation to self-determination and state sovereignty, including the inviolable right to secession and association, as the basic preconditions for peace and stability of the international order, the Republic of Croatia is hereby established as the national state of the Croatian people and a state of members of other nations and minorities who are its citizens: Serbs, Muslims, Slovenes, Czechs, Slovaks, Italians, Hungarians, Jews and others, who are guaranteed equality with citizens of Croatian nationality and the realization of ethnic rights in accordance with the democratic norms of the United Nations and countries of free world.

Respecting the will of the Croatian nation and all citizens, resolutely expressed at free elections, the Republic of Croatia is organized and shall develop as a sovereign and democratic state in which the equality of citizens and human freedoms and rights are guaranteed and ensured, and their economic and cultural progress and social welfare are promoted.

 

 

Chapter II Basic Provisions

 

Article 1 [State Principles]

(1) The Republic of Croatia is a unitary and indivisible democratic and social state. Power in the Republic of Croatia is derived from the people and belongs to the people as a community of free and equal citizens.

(2) The people exercise this power through the election of representatives and through direct decision-making.

 

Article 2 [Sovereignty]

(1) The sovereignty of the Republic of Croatia is inalienable, indivisible and untransferable.

(2) The sovereignty of the Republic of Croatia encompasses its lands, rivers, lakes, canals, internal maritime waters, territorial sea, and the air space above these.

(3) The Republic of Croatia exercises, in accordance with international law, sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the maritime areas and the seabed and subsoil thereof of the Adriatic Sea outside the state territory up to the borders of neighboring countries.

(4) The Croatian Parliament and people directly, independently, and in accordance with the Constitution and law, decide:

- on the regulation of economic, legal and political relations in the Republic of Croatia;

- on the preservation of natural and cultural wealth and its utilization;

- on association in alliances with other states.

(5) The Republic of Croatia may conclude alliances with other states, retaining the sovereign right to decide by itself on the powers to be transferred and the right to withdraw from them freely.

 

Article 3 [State Values]

Freedom, equal rights, national equality, peace, social justice, respect for human rights, inviolability of ownership, conservation of nature and the human environment, the rule of law, and a democratic multiparty system are the highest values of the constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia.

 

Article 4 [State Powers]

The government in the Republic of Croatia is organized on the principle of separation of powers into the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

 

Article 5 [Rule of Law]

(1) Laws in the Republic of Croatia must conform with the Constitution, and other rules and regulations must conform with the Constitution and the law.

(2) Everyone has to abide by the Constitution and law and respect the legal order of the Republic.

 

Article 6 [Political Parties]

(1) The formation of political parties is free.

(2) Political parties have to be organized according to a territorial principle. The work of any political party which by its program of activity violently endangers the democratic constitutional order, independence, unity, or territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia is prohibited.

 

Article 7 [Armed Forces]

(1) The armed forces of the Republic of Croatia protect its sovereignty and independence and defend its territorial integrity.

(2) The defense system of the Republic of Croatia is regulated by law.

 

Article 8 [Borders]

The borders of the Republic of Croatia may only be altered by decision of the Croatian Parliament.

 

Article 9 [Citizenship]

(1) Croatian citizenship, its acquisition and termination is regulated by law.

(2) No citizen of the Republic of Croatia may be exiled from the Republic, be deprived of citizenship, or be extradited to another state.

 

Article 10 [Citzens Abroad]

(1) The Republic of Croatia protects the rights and interests of its citizens living or staying abroad, and promotes their links with the homeland.

(2) Parts of the Croatian nation in other states are guaranteed special concern and protection by the Republic of Croatia.

 

Article 11 [State Symbols]

(1) The coat-of-arms of the Republic of Croatia is the historical Croatian coat-of-arms whose base consists of 25 alternating red and white fields.

(2) The flag of the Republic of Croatia consists of three colors: red, white, and blue, with the historical Croatian coat-of-arms in the center.

(3) The anthem of the Republic of Croatia is "Lijepa nasa domovino".

(4) The description of the historical Croatian coat-of-arms and flag, the text of the anthem, and the use of these and other state symbols is regulated by law.

 

Article 12 [State Language]

(1) The Croatian language and the Latin script are in official use in the Republic of Croatia.

(2) In individual local units, another language and the Cyrillic or some other script may, along with the Croatian language and the Latin script, be introduced into official use under conditions specified by law.

 

Article 13 [Capital: Zagreb]

(1) The capital of the Republic of Croatia is Zagreb.

(2) The city of Zagreb is a separate territorial and administrative unit whose organization is regulated by law.

 

 

Chapter III Fundamental Freedoms and Richts of Man and Citizen

 

 

Part 1 Common Provisions

 

Article 14 [Equality]

(1) Citizens of the Republic of Croatia enjoy all rights and freedoms regardless of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, education, social status, or other characteristics.

(2) All are equal before the law.

 

Article 15 [Rights of Foreigners, Cultural Rights]

(1) Members of all nations and minorities have equal rights in the Republic of Croatia.

(2) Members of all nations and minorities are guaranteed freedom to express their national identity, freedom to use their language and script, and cultural autonomy.

 

Article 16 [Rule of Law, Restrictions]

Freedoms and rights may only be restricted by law to protect the freedoms and rights of other people and the public order, morality, and health.

 

Article 17 [Special Restrictions in State of Emergency]

(1) During a state of war or an immediate danger to the independence and unity of the Republic, or in the event of some natural disaster, individual freedoms and rights guaranteed by the Constitution may be restricted. This shall be decided by the Croatian Parliament by a two-thirds majority of all representatives or, if the Croatian Parliament is unable to convene, by the President of the Republic.

(2) The extent of such restrictions must be adequate to the nature of the danger, and may not result in the inequality of citizens in respect of race, color, sex, language, religion, national, or social origin.

(3) Not even in the case of immediate danger to the existence of the state may restrictions be imposed on the application of the provisions of this Constitution concerning the right to life, prohibition of torture, cruel or unusual treatment or punishment, and on the legal definitions of penal offenses and punishments, and on freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

 

Article 18 [Right to Appeal, Access to Courts]

(1) The right to appeal against individual legal acts made in first-instance proceedings before courts or other authorized bodies is guaranteed.

(2) The right to appeal may exceptionally be denied in cases specified by law if other legal protection is ensured.

 

Article 19 [Rule of Law in Public Administration]

(1) Individual acts of state administration and bodies vested with public powers are based on law.

(2) Judicial review of the legality of individual acts of administrative authorities and bodies vested with public powers are guaranteed.

 

Article 20 [Personal Liability]

Anyone violating the provisions of this Constitution concerning the basic freedoms and rights of man and the citizen is held personally responsible and may not exculpate himself from invoking a higher order.

 

 

Part 2 Personal and Political Freedoms and Rights

 

Article 21 [Life, No Capital Punishment]

(1) Every human being has the right to life.

(2) In the Republic of Croatia there is no capital punishment.

 

Article 22 [Personal Liberty]

(1) Man's freedom and personality are inviolable.

(2) No one may be deprived of liberty, nor may his liberty be restricted, except when so specified by law, which shall be decided by a court.

 

Article 23 [Personal Integrity, No Forced Labor]

(1) No one may be subjected to any form of maltreatment or, without his consent, to medical or scientific experiments.

(2) Forced and obligatory labor are forbidden.

 

Article 24 [Arrest]

(1) No one may be arrested or detained without a written court order based on law. Such an order has to be read and given to the arrested person at the moment of arrest.

(2) The police may without a court order arrest a person reasonably suspected of having committed a serious criminal offense defined by law, and must immediately hand him over to the court. The arrested person has to be immediately informed in a way understandable to him of the reasons for arrest and of his rights determined by law.

(3) Any person arrested or detained has the right to appeal to the court, which must decide without delay on the legality of the arrest.

 

Article 25 [Conditions of Arrest]

(1) Any arrested and convicted person must be treated in a humane manner and his dignity has to be respected.

(2) Anyone who is detained and accused of a penal offense has the right, within the shortest term specified by law, to be brought before a court, and within the statutory term to be acquitted or convicted.

(3) A person in custody may be released on legal bail to defend himself.

(4) Any person who has been illegally deprived of liberty or convicted is, in conformity with law, entitled to damages and a public apology.

 

Article 26 [Equality Before the Powers]

All citizens and aliens are equal before courts, government bodies, and other bodies vested with public powers.

 

Article 27 [Legal Aid of the Bar]

The Bar as an autonomous and independent service provides citizens with legal aid, in conformity with law.

 

Article 28 [Presumption of Innocence]

Everyone is presumed innocent and may not be considered guilty of a penal offense until his guilt has been proved by a final court judgement.

 

Article 29 [Defense, Illegal Evidence]

(1) Anyone suspected or accused of a penal offense has the right:

- to a fair trial before a competent court specified by law;

- to be informed of the reasons for the charges brought against him and of the evidence incriminating him within the shortest possible term;

- to a defense attorney and free communication with him, and to be informed of this right;

- to be tried in his presence if he is accessible to the court, and to defend himself by himself or with the assistance of the defense counsel chosen by him;

(2) A charged and accused person may not be forced to testify against himself or to admit his guilt.

(3) Illegally obtained evidence is not admitted in court proceedings.

 

Article 30 [Loss of Rights as a Penulty]

A penal judgement for a serious and exceptionally dishonorable penal offense may, in conformity with law, have as a consequence loss of acquired rights or a ban on acquiring, for a specific time, certain rights to the conduct of specific affairs, if this is required for the protection of legal order.

 

Article 31 [nulla poena sine lege, double jeopardy]

(1) No one may be punished for an act which before its perpetration was not defined by law or international law as a punishable offense, nor may he be sentenced to a punishment which was not defined by law. If after the perpetration of an act a less severe punishment is determined by law, such punishment has to be imposed.

(2) No one may again be tried for an act for which he was already sentenced and for which a final court judgement was passed.

(3) No criminal proceedings can be renewed against a person acquitted by a final court judgement.

 

Article 32 [Move, Residence, Leave, Return]

(1) Anyone who legally finds himself in the territory of the Republic has the right freely to move and choose a residence.

(2) Every citizen of the Republic has the right at any time to leave the state territory and permanently or temporarily to settle abroad, and at any time to return home.

(3) The right of movement within the Republic and the right to enter or leave it may exceptionally be restricted by law, if this is necessary to protect the legal order, or the health, rights and freedoms of others.

 

Article 33 [Asylum]

(1) Foreign citizens and stateless persons may obtain asylum in Croatia, unless they are prosecuted for non-political crimes and activities contrary to the basic principles of international law.

(2) No alien who legally finds himself on the territory of the Republic shall be banished or extradited to another state, unless a decision made in accordance with an international agreement or law is to be enforced.

 

Article 34 [Home, Search]

(1) Homes are inviolable.

(2) Only a court may by a warrant based on law and a statement of reasons order the search of a home or other premises.

(3) The tenant concerned has the right, personally or through his representatives and two obligatory witnesses, to be present at the search of his home or other premises.

(4) Subject to conditions spelled out by law, police authorities may even without a court warrant or consent from the tenant enter his home or premises and carry out a search in the absence of witnesses, if this is indispensable to enforce an arrest warrant or to apprehend the offender, or to prevent serious danger to life or major property.

(5) A search aimed at finding or securing evidence, which there is reasonable probability to believe is to be found in the home of the perpetrator of a penal offense, may only be carried out in the presence of witnesses.

 

Article 35 [Privacy, Dignity, Reputation, Honor]

All citizens are guaranteed respect for and legal protection of personal and family life, dignity, reputation, and honor.

 

Article 36 [Secrecy of Communication]

(1) Freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication are guaranteed and inviolable.

(2) Restrictions necessary for the protection of the Republic's security and the conduct of criminal proceedings may only be prescribed by law.

 

Article 37 [Data Integrity]

(1) Everyone is guaranteed the safety and secrecy of personal data. Without consent from the person concerned, personal data may be collected, processed, and used only under conditions specified by law.

(2) Protection of data and supervision of the work of information systems in the Republic are regulated by law.

(3) The use of personal data contrary to the purpose of their collection is prohibited.

 

Article 38 [Expression]

(1) Freedom of thought and expression of thought are guaranteed.

(2) Freedom of expression specifically includes freedom of the press and other media of communication, freedom of speech and public expression, and free establishment of all institutions of public communication.

(3) Censorship is forbidden. Journalists have the right to freedom of reporting and access to information.

(4) The right to correction is guaranteed to anyone whose constitutionally determined rights have been violated by public communication.

 

Article 39 [Intolerance]

Any call for or incitement to war, or resort to violence, national, racial, or religious hatred, or any form of intolerance is prohibited and punishable.

 

Article 40 [Religion]

Freedom of conscience and religion and free public profession of religion and other convictions are guaranteed.

 

Article 41 [Religious Communities, Religious Neutrality]

(1) All religious communities are equal before the law and separate from the state.

(2) Religious communities shall be free, in conformity with law, to publicly perform religious services, open schools, teaching establishments or other institutions , social and charitable institutions and to manage them, and shall in their activity enjoy the protection and assistance of the state.

 

Article 42 [Assembly, Protest]

All citizens are guaranteed the right to peaceful assembly and public protest.

 

Article 43 [Association]

(1) Citizens are guaranteed the right to free association for the purposes of protection of their interests or promotion of social, economic, political, national, cultural, and other convictions and objectives. For this purpose, citizens may freely form political parties, trade unions, and other associations, join them, or leave them.

(2) The right to free association shall be restricted by the prohibition of any violent threat to the democratic constitutional order and the independence, unity, and territorial integrity of the Republic.

 

Article 44 [Public Affairs, Public Services]

Every citizen of the Republic has the right, under equal conditions, to take part in the conduct of public affairs and has access to public service.

 

Article 45 [Electoral Rights]

(1) All citizens of the Republic who have reached the age of eighteen years have universal and equal suffrage. This right is to be exercised at direct elections by secret ballot.

(2) In elections for the Croatian Parliament and the President of the Republic, the Republic ensures suffrage to all citizens who at the time of the elections find themselves outside its borders, so that they may vote in the states in which they find themselves or any other way specified by law.

 

Article 46 [Petition]

All citizens have the right to submit petitions and complaints, to make proposals to government and other public bodies, and to receive answers thereto.

 

Article 47 [Military Service]

(1) Military service and the defense of the Republic are the duty of all citizens able to perform it.

(2) Conscientious objection is allowed to all those who for religious or moral beliefs are not willing to participate in the performance of military duties in the armed forces. Such persons are obliged to perform other duties specified by law.

 

 

Part 3 Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

Article 48 [Property, Inheritance]

(1) The right to ownership is guaranteed.

(2) Ownership implies obligations. Holders of the right to ownership and its users shall contribute to the general welfare.

(3) A foreign person may acquire the right to ownership under conditions spelled out by law.

(4) The right to inheritance is guaranteed.

 

Article 49 [Business Freedoms]

(1) Entrepreneurial and market freedom are the basis of the economic system of the Republic.

(2) The state ensures all entrepreneurs an equal legal status on the market. Monopolies are forbidden.

(3) The Republic stimulates economic progress and social welfare and cares for the economic development of all regions.

(4) The rights acquired through the investment of capital may not be lessened by law, nor by any other legal act.

(5) Foreign investors are guaranteed free transfer and repatriation of profit and the capital invested.

 

Article 50 [Expropriation, Restrictions for Businesses]

(1) Ownership may, in the interests of the republic, be restricted by law, or property taken over against indemnity equal to its market value.

(2) Entrepreneurial freedom and property rights may exceptionally be restricted by law for the purposes of protecting the interests and security of the Republic, nature, the human environment, and human health.

 

Article 51 [Taxation]

(1) Everyone must participate in carrying public expenses, in accordance with their economic possibilities.

(2) The tax system is based on the principles of equality and equity.

 

Article 52 [Natural Resources]

(1) The sea, seashore, and islands, waters, air space, mineral wealth, and other natural resources, as well as land, forests, fauna, and flora, other parts of nature, real estate, and things of special cultural, historical, economic, or ecological significance which are specified by law to be of interest to the Republic, enjoy its special protection.

(2) The way in which goods of interest to the Republic may be used and exploited by holders of rights to them and by owners, and compensation for the restrictions imposed on them, is regulated by law.

 

Article 53 [National Bank]

(1) The National Bank of Croatia is the central bank of the Republic of Croatia.

(2) The National Bank of Croatia is, within the framework of its rights and duties, responsible for the stability of the currency and for general payment liquidity at home and abroad.

(3) The National Bank of Croatia is independent in its work and responsible to the Croatian Parliament. Profits made through the operations of the National Bank of Croatia accrue to the state budget.

(4) The status of the National Bank of Croatia is regulated by law.

 

Article 54 [Work]

(1) Everyone has the right to work and to freedom of work.

(2) Everyone is free to choose his vocation and occupation, and all work places and duties shall be accessible to everyone under the same conditions.

 

Article 55 [Pay, Rest, Vacation, Participation]

(1) Every employed person has the right to remuneration, ensuring for himself and his family a free and decent life.

(2) Maximum working hours are regulated by law.

(3) Every employed person has the right to a weekly rest and annual holidays with pay, and may not renounce these rights.

(4) Employed persons may, in conformity with law, participate in decision-making in the firms in which they work.

 

Article 56 [Social Security, Child Care]

(1) The right of those employed and of members of their families to social security and social insurance are regulated by law and collective agreements.

(2) Rights in connection with childbirth, maternity, and child care are regulated by law.

 

Article 57 [Assistance, Disabled, Humanitarian Aid]

(1) The Republic shall ensure to weak, helpless, and other citizens unprovided-for due to unemployment or incapacity to work the right to assistance to meet their basic needs.

(2) The Republic ensures special care for the protection of disabled persons and their inclusion in social life.

(3) Receiving humanitarian aid from abroad may not be forbidden.

 

Article 58 [Health Care]

Every citizen is guaranteed the right to health care.

 

Article 59 [Unions]

(1) In order to protect their economic and social interests, all employees and employers have the right to form trade unions and freely join and leave them.

(2) Trade unions may form their federations and associate in international trade union organizations.

(3) Formation of trade unions in the armed forces and the police may be restricted by law.

 

Article 60 [Strike]

(1) The right to strike is guaranteed.

(2) The right to strike may be restricted in the armed forces, the police, government administration, and the public services specified by law.

 

Article 61 [Family, Marriage]

(1) The family enjoys special protection of the Republic.

(2) Marriage and legal relations in marriage, common-law marriage, and families are regulated by law.

 

Article 62 [Special Protection]

The Republic protects maternity, children, and young people, and creates social, cultural, educational, material, and other conditions conducive to the realization of the right to a decent life.

 

Article 63 [Parents]

(1) Parents shall the duty to bring up, support, and school their children and have the right and freedom to independently decide on the upbringing of children

(2) Parents are responsible for ensuring their children the right to the full and harmonious development of their personalities.

(3) Physically and mentally handicapped and socially neglected children have the right to special care, education, and welfare.

(4) Children are bound to take care of old and helpless parents.

(5) The republic takes special care of parentless minors and of parentally neglected children.

 

Article 64 [Children, Mothers, Disabled]

(1) Everyone has the duty to protect children and helpless persons.

(2) Children may not be employed before reaching the legally determined age, nor may they be forced or allowed to do work which is harmful to their health or morality.

(3) Young people, mothers, and disabled persons are entitled to special protection at work.

 

Article 65 [Schooling]

(1) Primary schooling is compulsory and free.

(2) Everyone has access, under the same conditions, to secondary and higher education in accordance with the abilities.

 

Article 66 [Private Schools]

Under conditions specified by law, citizens may open private schools and teaching establishments.

 

Article 67 [Universities]

(1) The autonomy of universities is guaranteed.

(2) Universities independently decide on their organization and work in conformity with law.

 

Article 68 [Science, Culture, Arts, Sports]

(1) Freedom of scientific, cultural, and artistic creativity is guaranteed.

(2) The Republic shall stimulate and assist the development of science, culture, and the arts.

(3) The Republic protects scientific, cultural, and artistic goods as spiritual national values.

(4) Protection of moral and material rights deriving from scientific, cultural, artistic, intellectual, and other creative endeavour is guaranteed.

(5) The Republic promotes physical culture and sports.

 

Article 69 [Health, Environment, Nature]

(1) Everyone has the right to a healthy life.

(2) The Republic ensures citizens the right to a healthy environment.

(3) Citizens, government, public and economic bodies, and associations are bound, within their powers and activities, to pay special attention to the protection of human health, nature, and the human environment.

 

 

Chapter IV Organization of Government

 

 

Part 1 The Croatian Parliament

 

Article 70 [Bicameral Parliament]

(1) The Croatian Parliament is a body of the elected representatives of the people and is vested with the legislative power in the republic of Croatia.

(2) The Croatian Parliament consists of the House of Representatives dom) and the House of Counties.

 

Article 71 [Elections, Nomination]

(1) The House of Representatives has no less than 100 and no more than 160 representatives, elected on the basis of direct universal, and equal suffrage by secret ballot.

(2) Citizens in every county shall, on the basis of universal suffrage, directly, and by secret ballot, elect 3 representatives to the House of Counties.

(3) The President of the Republic, upon the expiry of his term, becomes a lifelong member of the Chamber of Counties unless he explicitly renounces this duty.

(4) The President of the Republic may nominate up to 5 representatives to the House of Counties from among citizens especially deserving for the Republic.

 

Article 72 [Term, Incompatibility, Electoral Law]

(1) Representatives in the Houses of the Croatian Parliament are elected for a term of four years.

(2) No one can be at the same time a representative in the House of Representatives and the House of Counties.

(3) The number of and conditions and procedure for the election of representatives to the Houses of the Croatian Parliament are regulated by law.

 

Article 73 [New Elections, First Session]

(1) Elections for representatives in the Houses of the Croatian Parliament are held not later than 60 days after the expiry of the mandate or the dissolution of the Houses of the Croatian Parliament.

(2) The first session of the Houses of the Croatian Parliament is held not later than 20 days after the completion of the elections.

 

Article 74 [Free Mandate, Remuneration]

(1) Representatives in the Croatian Parliament do not have an imperative mandate.

(2) Representatives in the Croatian Parliament have a regular financial remuneration and other rights specified by law.

 

Article 75 [Immunity, Indemnity]

(1) Representatives in the Croatian Parliament enjoy immunity.

(2) No representative may be called to account criminally, detained, or punished for an opinion expressed or a vote cast in the Parliament.

(3) No representative may be detained, nor shall criminal proceedings be instituted against him without approval thereof by the House of which he is a member.

(4) A representative may be detained without assent of his Parliament only if he has been caught in the act of committing a criminal offense which carries a penalty of imprisonment of more than five years. In such a case, the Chairman of the House concerned has to be notified thereof.

(5) If the House is not in session, approval for the detention of the representative, or for the continuation of criminal proceedings against him, shall be given and his right to immunity decided by the Parliamentary Immunity and Mandate Commission of his House, such a decision being subject to subsequent confirmation by the House.

 

Article 76 [Extended Term]

The term of office of representatives in the Croatian Parliament may be extended by law only in the case of war.

 

Article 77 [Dissolution]

(1) The House of Representatives and the House of Counties may be dissolved if so decided by majority of all their representatives.

(2) The President of the Republic may, in conformity with the Constitution, dissolve the House of Representatives.

 

Article 78 [Sessions]

(1) The Houses of the Croatian Parliament is in regular session twice a year: the first time between 15 Jan and 30 June, and the second time between 15 Sep and 15 Dec.

(2) The Houses of the Croatian Parliament sits in emergency session at the request of the President of the Republic, the Government, or the majority of representatives in the House.

 

Article 79 [Rules of Procedures, Chairmen]

(1) The internal organization and mode of work of the House of Representatives and the House of Counties is regulated by their respective rules of procedure.

(2) The rules of procedure are passed by a majority vote of all representatives.

(3) The House of Representatives and the House of Counties each have a Chairman and one or more Vice-Chairmen.

(4) The rights and duties of the Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen are defined by the Houses' rules of procedure.

(5) The Chairman of the House of Representatives is the Chairman of the Croatian Parliament.

 

Article 80 [Competences of the House of Representatives]

The House of Representatives shall:

- decide on the enactment and amendment of the Constitution;

- pass laws;

- adopt the state budget;

- decide on war and peace;

- decide on alterations of the borders of the Republic;

- call referenda;

- carry out elections, appointments and relief of office, in conformity with the Constitution and law;

- supervise the work of the Government of the Republic of Croatia and other holders of public powers responsible to the Parliament, in conformity with the Constitution and law;

- grant amnesty for penal offenses;

- conduct other affairs as specified by the Constitution.

 

Article 81 [Competences of the House of Counties]

The House of Counties:

- shall propose to the House of Representatives bills and the calling of referenda;

- shall discuss and may give opinion on questions falling within the competence of the House of Representatives;

- shall give to the House of Representatives prior opinion on the procedure for the enactment of the Constitution and laws which regulate national rights, elaborate constitutionally determined freedoms and rights of man and the citizen and the electoral system, the organization, responsibilities and operation of government bodies, and the organization of local self-government and administration;

- may, within a period of 15 days from the date of the passage of a law in the House of Representatives, with a substantiated opinion return the law for re-consideration in the House of Representatives. In such case, the House of Representatives shall decide on the passage of such a law by a majority vote of all representatives, except when the House of Representatives passes laws by a two-thirds majority;

- shall conduct other affairs as specified by the Constitution.

 

Article 82 [Voting]

(1) Unless otherwise specified by the Constitution, the House of Representatives and the House of Counties make decisions by a majority vote, provided that a majority of representatives are present at the session.

(2) Representatives vote personally.

 

Article 83 [Majority]

(1) Laws which regulate national rights are to be passed by the House of Representatives by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

(2) Laws which elaborate the constitutionally defined freedoms and the rights of man and the citizen, the electoral system, the organization, responsibilities, and operation of local self-government and administration are to be passed by the House of Representatives by a majority vote of all representatives.

 

Article 84 [Publicity]

Sessions of the Croatian Parliament are public.

 

Article 85 [Initiative]

All representatives of the House of Representatives, working bodies of the House of Representatives, the House of Counties, and the Government of the Republic of Croatia have the right to propose laws.

 

Article 86 [Questions]

Representatives in the Houses of the Croatian Parliament have, in conformity with the rules of procedure, the right to put questions to the Government of the Republic of Croatia and to individual ministers.

 

Article 87 [Referendum]

(1) The House of Representatives may call a referendum on a proposal for the amendment of the Constitution, or a bill, or any other issue falling within its competence.

(2) The President of the Republic may, at the proposal of the Government and with the counter-signature of the Prime Minister, call a referendum on a proposal for the amendment of the Constitution or on any other issue which he considers to be important for the independence, unity and existence of the Republic.

(3) At such a referendum, a decision must be made by the majority of the voters who voted, provided that the majority of the total number of electors have taken part in the referendum.

(4) Decisions made at referenda are binding.

(5) A law has to be passed on referenda.

 

Article 88 [Decrees]

(1) The House of Representatives may, for a maximum period of one year, authorize the Government of the Republic of Croatia to regulate by decrees individual issues falling within its competence, except those relating to the elaboration of constitutionally defined freedoms and rights, national rights, the electoral system, the organization, responsibilities and operation of government bodies, and local self-government.

(2) Decrees based on statutory authority do not have a retroactive effect.

(3) Decrees passed on the basis of statutory authority cease to be valid after the expiry of a period of one year from the date when the House of Representatives received such authority, unless otherwise decided by the House of Representatives.

 

Article 89 [Promulgation]

Laws are promulgated by the President of the Republic within eight days from the date when they were, in conformity with the Constitution, passed in the House of Representatives.

 

Article 90 [Publication, Retroactive Effect]

(1) Before coming into force, laws must be published in the Republic's Official Gazette.

(2) A law comes into force at the earliest on the eighth day after its publication, unless otherwise specified by law for especially justified reasons. Only individual provisions of a law may have a retroactive effect.

 

Article 91 [Budget]

(1) State revenues and expenditures are determined by the state budget.

(2) A law whose application demands financial funds specifies the sources of such funds.

 

Article 92 [Inquiry Commissions]

(1) The Houses of the Croatian Parliament may form inquiry commissions regarding any issue of public interest.

(2) The composition, responsibilities, and powers of inquiry commissions are regulated by law.

 

Article 93 [Ombudsman]

(1) An ombudsman, who shall be a commissioner of the Croatian Parliament, protects the constitutional and legal rights of citizens in proceedings before government administration and bodies vested with public powers.

(2) The ombudsman is elected by the House of Representatives for a term of eight years.

(3) Conditions for the election and relief of office and the mode of work of the ombudsman and his deputies are regulated by law.

 

 

Part 2 The President of the Republic of Croatia

 

Article 94 [Head of State]

(1) The President of the Republic of Croatia is the head of state.

(2) The President of the Republic represents the Republic at home and abroad, is responsible for abiding by the Constitution, and ensures the continuance and unity of the Republic and the regular functioning of government.

 

Article 95 [Election]

(1) The President of the Republic is elected, on the basis of universal and equal suffrage at direct elections by secret ballot, for a term of five years.

(2) No one can be President of the Republic more than twice.

(3) The President of the Republic is elected by a majority vote of all electors who voted. If none of the candidates has obtained such a majority, a new election is held after 14 days.

(4) The two candidates who at the first election obtained the largest number of votes have the right to stand at the new election. If one of the candidates who obtained the largest number of votes withdraws his candidature, the candidate who is next in the number of votes obtained acquires the right to be elected.

(5) Elections for the President of the Republic are held in no less than 30 and no more than 60 days before the expiry of his term.

(6) Before assuming duty, the President of the Republic takes a solemn oath pledging loyalty to the Constitution.

(7) The election of the President of the Republic is regulated by law.

 

Article 96 [Incompatibility]

The President of the Republic may not, except for party-related duties, perform any other public or professional duty.

 

Article 97 [Replacement]

(1) In the event of the death of the President of the Republic, his resignation, or his being permanently prevented from performing his duties, the occurrence of which is established by the Constitutional Court of Croatia at the proposal of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the duty of the President of the Republic is temporarily assumed by the Chairman of the Croatian Parliament.

(2) The election of a new President of the Republic is carried out within 60 days from the date when the former President ceased to perform his duties.

 

Article 98 [Competences]

(1) The President of the Republic shall:

- call elections for the Chambers of the Parliament and convene their first session;

- call referenda, in conformity with the Constitution;

- appoint and relieve of duty the Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia;

- at the proposal of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia appoint and relieve of duty its deputy prime ministers and members;

- grant pardons;

- confer decorations and other awards specified by law;

- perform other duties specified by the Constitution.

 

Article 99 [Diplomacy]

(1) The President of the Republic decides, at the Government's proposal, on the establishment of diplomatic and other representative offices of the Republic of Croatia abroad.

(2) The President of the Republic appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Croatia, receives letters of credence and letters of recall from foreign diplomatic representatives.

 

Article 100 [Commander-In-Chief, Proclamation of War and Peace]

(1) The President of the Republic is commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of Croatia.

(2) The President of the Republic appoints members of the National Defense Council of the Republic of Croatia and preside over it, and appoints and relieves of duty military commanders, in conformity with law.

(3) On the basis of a decision by the Croatian Parliament, the President of the Republic may proclaim war and conclude peace.

 

Article 101 [Decrees]

(1) The President of the Republic passes decrees with the force of law and takes emergency measures in the event of a state of war or an immediate danger to the independence and unity of the Republic, or when government bodies are prevented from regularly performing constitutional duties. During the time the President of the Republic is making use of such powers, the House of Representatives may not be dissolved.

(2) The President of the Republic submits decrees with the force of law for approval to the Chamber of Representatives as soon as the Parliament is in a position to meet.

 

Article 102 [President in Government]

(1) The President of the Republic may convene a session of the Government of the Republic of Croatia and place on its agenda items which he deems should be considered.

(2) The President of the Republic presides over sessions of the Government at which he is present.

 

Article 103 [Report About the State of the Republic]

The President of the Republic may give to the Croatian Parliament information of, and shall once a year submit to it a report on, the state of the Republic.

 

Article 104 [Dissolution of Parliament]

(1) The President of the Republic may, at the proposal of the Government and with the counter-signature of the Prime Minister, after having consulted the Chairman of the House, dissolve the House of Representatives, if this House has passed a vote of no confidence to the Government, or if it has not approved the state budget within a month from the date when it was proposed.

(2) The President of the Republic may not again dissolve the House of Representatives before the expiration of one year from the date of its dissolution.

 

Article 105 [Impeachment]

(1) The President of the Republic is impeachable for any violation of the Constitution he has committed in the performance of his duties.

(2) Proceedings for the impeachment of the President of the Republic may be instituted by the House of Representatives by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

(3) The impeachability of the President of the Republic shall be decided upon the Constitutional Court of Croatia by a two-thirds majority vote of all justices.

(4) If the Constitutional Court of Croatia sustains the impeachment, the duty of the President of the Republic shall cease by force of the Constitution.

 

Article 106 [Presidential Council, Advisory Bodies]

In the performance of his powers, the President of the Republic is assisted by a Presidential Council and other advisory and auxiliary bodies whose members are appointed and recalled by the President of the Republic.

 

 

Part 3 The Government of the Republic of Croatia

 

Article 107 [Executive Power, Bound by Constitution]

The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises executive powers in conformity with the Constitution and law.

 

Article 108 [Prime Minister, Ministers]

The Government of the Republic of Croatia consists of a Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and other members.

 

Article 109 [Organization]

(1) The organization, operation and decision-making by the Government is regulated by law and its rules of procedure.

(2) The internal organization of ministers are regulated by Government decrees, and services for the conduct of its affairs is to be set up by it.

 

Article 110 [Decrees, Powers]

The Government passes decrees in conformity with the Constitution and law, introduces bills, proposes the state budget, and enforce laws and other regulations enacted by the Croatian Parliament.

 

Article 111 [Responsibilities]

(1) The Government is responsible to the President of the Republic and the House of Representatives of the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia.

(2) The Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers and members of the Government are jointly responsible for the decisions made by the Government, and are personally responsible for their respective departments.

 

Article 112 [Taking of Power]

(1) The Prime Minister shall, not later than 15 days from his nomination, present the Government to the House of Representatives and ask for a vote of confidence in the Government.

(2) The nomination of the Prime Minister and members of the Government are deemed to have been accepted if confidence in it has been expressed by a majority of all representatives in the House of Representatives.

 

Article 113 [Vote of Confidence]

(1) At the proposal of at least a tenth of the representatives in the House of Representatives, a vote of confidence to the Prime Minister, individual Government members or the Government as a whole may be requested.

(2) A vote of confidence in the Government may also be requested by the Prime Minister.

(3) No vote of confidence may be taken before the expiry of three days from the date of service of the proposal to the House of Representatives.

(4) A no confidence decision shall be accepted if it has been voted for the majority of the total number of representatives.

(5) If the House of Representatives rejects the proposal for a vote of no confidence, the representatives who made it may not again make the same proposal before the expiry of three months.

(6) If a vote of no confidence to the Prime Minister or the Government as a whole is passed, the Prime Minister shall submit his resignation to the President of the Republic, who shall dissolve the Government.

(7) If a vote of no confidence in an individual member of the Government is passed, the Prime Minister may resign or may propose the President of the Republic to relieve of duty the member of the Government against whom the vote of no confidence was passed.

 

Article 114 [State Administration]

(1) The organization of state administration is regulated by law.

(2) Employees in state administration are appointed on the basis of public competition, unless otherwise specified by law.

 

 

Part 4 Judicial Power

 

Article 115 [Courts, Independence, Bound by Constitution]

(1) Judicial power is exercised by courts.

(2) Judicial power is autonomous and independent.

(3) Courts administer justice on the basis of the Constitution and law.

 

Article 116 [Supreme Court]

(1) The Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia, as the highest court, ensures uniform application of laws and equality of citizens.

(2) The establishment, jurisdiction, composition, and organization of courts and court proceedings are regulated by law.

(3) The formation, competence, and organization of the office of public prosecutor are regulated by law.

 

Article 117 [Publicity]

(1) Court hearings shall be open and judgements shall be passed publicly in the name of the Republic of Croatia.

(2) The public may be barred from a hearing or part thereof if minors are being tried, or for the purposes of protection of the private lives of the parties, or in marital disputes and proceedings in connection with guardianship and adoption, or for the purposes of protection of military, official, or business secrets, and for the protection of security of the Republic's defense.

 

Article 118 [Justices, Lay-Assessors]

Justice is to be administered by judges and lay-assessors in conformity with law.

 

Article 119 [Judicial Indemnity, Judicial Immunity]

(1) Judges and lay-assessors who take part in the administration of justice cannot be called to account for an opinion given in the process of judicial decision-making.

(2) Judges, in conformity with law, enjoy the same immunity as representatives in the Croatian Parliament.

 

Article 120 [Permanent Office]

(1) Judicial office is permanent.

(2) A judge shall be relieved of his judicial office:

- at his own request;

- if he has become permanently incapacitated to perform his office;

- if he has been sentenced for a criminal offense which makes him unworthy to hold judicial office;

- if in conformity with law it is so decided by the High Judiciary Council of the Republic owing to the commission of an act of serious infringement of discipline.

(3) The judge concerned shall have the right to submit to the House of Counties of the Croatian Parliament a request for protection against the decision to relieve him of office.

(4) A judge shall not be transferred against his will.

(5) A judge shall not perform an office or work defined by law as being incompatible with his judicial office.

 

Article 121 [High Judiciary Council]

(1) Judges and public prosecutors shall, in conformity with the Constitution and law, be appointed and relieved of duty by, and questions concerning their disciplinary responsibility decided upon by, the High Judiciary Council of the Republic.

(2) The High Judiciary Council of the Republic has a president and 14 members.

(3) The president and members are proposed by the House of Counties and elected by the House of Representatives for a term of eight years from among notable judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, and university professors of law, in conformity with law.

 

 

Chapter V The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia

 

Article 122 [Membership, President]

(1) The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia consists of 11 justices elected by the House of Representatives at the proposal of the House of Counties for a term of eight years from among outstanding jurists, especially judges, public prosecutors, lawyers, and university law professors.

(2) The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia elects a president for a term of four years.

 

Article 123 [Incompatibilities, Immunity]

(1) Justices of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia may not perform any other public or professional duties.

(2) Justices of the Constitutional Court of Croatia enjoy the same immunity as representatives in the Croatian Parliament.

 

Article 124 [Early Dismissal]

A justice of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia may be relieved of office before the expiry of the term for which he was elected if he requests to be relieved, if he is sentenced to a term of imprisonment, or if he is permanently incapacitated to perform his office, as established by the Court itself.

 

Article 125 [Powers]

The Constitutional court of Croatia shall:

- decide on the conformity of laws with the Constitution;

- decide on the conformity of other regulations with the Constitution and the law;

- protect the constitutional freedoms and rights of man and the citizen;

- decide jurisdictional disputes among legislative, executive, and judicial branches;

- decide, in conformity with the Constitution, on the impeachability of the President of the Republic;

- supervise the constitutionality of the programs and activities of political parties and may, in conformity with the Constitution, ban their work;

- supervise the constitutionality and legality of elections and republican referenda, and decide electoral disputes which do not fall within the jurisdiction of courts;

- conduct other affairs specified by the Constitution.

 

Article 126 [Constitutional Review]

(1) The Constitutional Court of Croatia shall repeal a law if it finds it to be unconstitutional.

(2) The Constitutional Court of Croatia shall repeal or annul any other regulation if it finds it to be unconstitutional or illegal.

 

Article 127 [Organization by Constitutional Law]

(1) Conditions for the election of justices of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia and the termination of their office, conditions, and time-limits for instituting proceedings for the assessment of the constitutionality and legality, procedure, and the legal effect of its decisions, protection of the constitutional freedoms and rights of man and the citizen, and other issues important for the performance of duties and work of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia, shall be regulated by the Constitutional Law.

(2) The Constitutional Law is passed by the procedure determined for amending the Constitution.

(3) The internal organization of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia is regulated by its rules of procedure.

 

 

Chapter VI Organization of Local Self-Government and Administration

 

Article 128 [Local Self-Government]

(1) Citizens are guaranteed the right to local self-government.

(2) The right to local self-government includes the right to decide on needs and interests of local significance, particularly on regional development and town planning, organization of localities and housing, public utilities, child care, social welfare, culture, physical culture, sports and technical culture, and the protection and promotion of the environment.

(3) A law shall be passed on local self-government.

 

Article 129 [Units and Bodies]

(1) Units of local self-government are, in conformity with law, municipalities and districts or towns. Their areas are determined by law after the opinion of the inhabitants of the areas concerned has been heard.

(2) The organization and responsibilities of the bodies of local self-government units are regulated by their statutes in conformity with law.

(3) Citizens may directly participate in the management of local affairs, in conformity with law and the statute of local self-government units.

(4) Citizens also have the right to establish, in conformity with law, other forms of local self-government in localities and parts thereof.

 

Article 130 [Independence, Supervision]

(1) Units of local self-government are, in conformity with law and by-laws, independent in the conduct of local affairs and only subjected to the supervision of legality by competent bodies of the Republic.

(2) In municipalities and districts or towns, local self-government bodies may be established by law. The organization and responsibilities of such bodies is regulated by law.

(3) Specific affairs of state administration may be by law transferred to the responsibility of local self-government bodies. In conducting such affairs, bodies of local self-government units shall be subordinate, in conformity with law, to bodies of state administration.

 

Article 131 [Determination of Counties]

(1) Counties are units of local administration and self-government. Areas of counties are determined by law so as to express the historical, transport, and economic factors, and to natural self-government units within the framework of the Republic.

(2) The organization and responsibilities of County bodies are determined by law.

(3) Large towns may by law be organized as counties.

 

 

Chapter VII International Relations

 

 

Part 1 International Agreements

 

Article 132 [Concurrent Power]

International agreements are, on behalf of the Republic of Croatia, concluded by the President of the Republic, but may also be concluded, in conformity with law, by the Government of the Republic of Croatia.

 

Article 133 [Ratification, Qualified Ratification]

(1) International agreements which entail the passage or amendment of laws, international agreements of a military and political nature, and international agreements which financially commit the Republic are subject to ratification by the Croatian Parliament.

(2) International Agreements which grant international organizations or alliances powers derived from the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia are subject to ratification by the Croatian Parliament by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

 

Article 134 [Priority Over Law]

International agreements concluded and ratified in accordance with the Constitution and made public are part of the Republic's internal legal order and are in terms of legal effect above law. Their provisions may be changed or repealed only under conditions and in the way specified in them, or in accordance with the general rules of international law.

 

 

Part 2 Association and Secession

 

Article 135 [Initiative, Majority, Referendum]

(1) Procedure for the association of the Republic of Croatia in alliances with other states may be instituted by at least one third of the representatives in the Croatian Parliament, by the President of the Republic, or by the Government of the Republic of Croatia.

(2) Such association of the Republic shall first be decided upon by the Croatian Parliament by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

(3) The decision concerning the Republic's association must be made on the basis of a referendum by a majority vote of the total number of electors in the Republic.

(4) Such referendum shall be held within 30 days from the date the decision was rendered by the Croatian Parliament by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

(5) The decision concerning the republic's association is made on the basis of a referendum by a majority vote of the total number of electors in the Republic.

(6) Such referendum shall be held within 30 days from the date the decision was rendered by the Croatian Parliament.

(7) The provisions of this Constitution concerning association shall also relate to conditions and procedure for secession of the Republic of Croatia, except when owing to extraordinary circumstances the Croatian Parliament may, at the proposal of a third of the representatives, or of the President of the Republic, or the Government of the Republic of Croatia, for the purposes of protection of the Republic of Croatia, decide on secession by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives present.

 

 

Chapter VIII Amending the Constitution

 

Article 136 [Initiative]

Amendment of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia may be proposed by at least one fifth of the representatives in the House of representatives of the Croatian Parliament, the President of the Republic, and the Government of the Republic of Croatia.

 

Article 137 [Starting Proceedings]

(1) The House of Representatives, upon hearing the opinion of the House of Counties, decides by a majority vote of all representatives whether or not to start proceedings for the amendment of the Constitution.

(2) A draft amendment of the Constitution requires a majority vote of all representatives.

 

Article 138 [Majority]

A decision to amend the Constitution requires, on the basis of a prior opinion of the House of Representatives, a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.

 

Article 139 [Promulgation]

The amendment of the Constitution is promulgated by the House of Representatives of the Croatian Parliament.

 

 

Chapter IX Transitional and Concluding Provisions

 

Article 140 [Yugoslavia, Protection Against Serbia]

(1) The Republic of Croatia remains part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until a new agreement is reached by the Yugoslav republics, or until the Croatian Parliament decides otherwise.

(2) If the territorial integrity of the Republic of Croatia is infringed by an act of or procedure by federal organ or an organ of other republics or provinces, members of the Federation, or if the Republic is brought into an unequal position in the federation, or its interests are endangered, the republic of Croatia's organs shall, on the basis of the right to self-determination and the sovereignty of the Republic of Croatia established by the Constitution, make the necessary decisions for the protection of the sovereignty and interests of the Republic of Croatia.

 

Article 141 [Implementation, Elections]

(1) This Constitution applies as of the date of its promulgation by the Croatian Parliament, unless otherwise specified by the Constitutional Law for its implementation regarding the application of its individual provisions.

(2) Elections for the Croatian Parliament and the President of the Republic are called in accordance with the electoral laws, which are passed not later than one year after the promulgation of this Constitution.

 

Article 142 [Constitutional Law for Implementation]

A Constitutional Law shall be passed for the implementation of this Constitution.

 

© FB

Trascina file per caricare